Practitioner and service user experiences of short term imprisonment and resettlement under the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014

PhD thesis


Cracknell, M. 2020. Practitioner and service user experiences of short term imprisonment and resettlement under the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014. PhD thesis Middlesex University School of Law
TypePhD thesis
TitlePractitioner and service user experiences of short term imprisonment and resettlement under the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014
AuthorsCracknell, M.
Abstract

The Offender Rehabilitation Act (ORA) 2014 extended post-release supervision to the short sentence population, a cohort who have historically been neglected in penal discourse and were introduced as a part of the Transforming Rehabilitation (TR) reforms. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how resettlement is enacted by practitioners and experienced by individuals serving short sentences. This empirical research was undertaken in one case study area in England and Wales. The experiences of 35 practitioners and service users were captured, in order to gain a rich qualitative perspective of the newly re-designated resettlement prison; the experiences of transitioning through-the-gate into the community; post-sentence supervision; service user perspectives of navigating resettlement; and practitioner perspectives of on the ground practice in the Community Rehabilitation Company (CRC).
Findings from this research reveal a dissonance between the aims and ambitions of TR and the reality on the ground. This dissonance is caused by a set of inter-connected institutional, temporal and political-economic barriers. Practitioners operating at the micro-level lacked the agency to overcome these barriers. This left TR as the latest iteration of resettlement policy that has failed to provide continuity between prison and probation. In addition, TR has also entailed broader consequences, eroding the value base of probation practice, curtailing innovation and reducing the relational aspects of supervision to a ‘treadmill’ of relentless yet generic practice.
Drawing on the theoretical constructs of the pains of imprisonment, responsibilisation, recovery/resettlement capital and net widening, this thesis argues that the failures to provide resettlement support led to practitioners adopting a responsibilisation strategy that pushes responsibility for resettlement towards other agencies and service users. This leaves service users to feel invisible and insignificant – distinct pains of the short sentence. Although the ORA 2014 was intended as a safety net for this population, it has instead caught individuals up in a complex ‘resettlement net’ of carceral control in the community.

LanguageEnglish
Department nameSchool of Law
Institution nameMiddlesex University
Publication dates
Print27 Jul 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited27 Jul 2021
Accepted13 Jan 2020
Output statusPublished
Accepted author manuscript
Permalink -

https://repository.mdx.ac.uk/item/89704

Download files


Accepted author manuscript
  • 56
    total views
  • 45
    total downloads
  • 11
    views this month
  • 10
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Invisible men: Short prison sentences and the pains of invisibility and insignificance
Cracknell, M. 2023. Invisible men: Short prison sentences and the pains of invisibility and insignificance. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice. 62 (3), pp. 341-356. https://doi.org/10.1111/hojo.12517
Horizontal and vertical responsibilisation in the resettlement field
Cracknell, M. 2023. Horizontal and vertical responsibilisation in the resettlement field. Safer Communities. 22 (1), pp. 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1108/SC-09-2022-0037
Comment piece: The inspection of Offender Management in Custody – new resettlement policy, same old problems
Cracknell, M. 2023. Comment piece: The inspection of Offender Management in Custody – new resettlement policy, same old problems. Probation Journal. 70 (3), pp. 298-307. https://doi.org/10.1177/02645505231191455
‘Prisoners abroad’ resettlement service: Housing security and lessons for probation
Ward, J. and Cracknell, M. 2023. ‘Prisoners abroad’ resettlement service: Housing security and lessons for probation. Probation Quarterly. 27, pp. 21-25. https://doi.org/10.54006/nkmv7477
The diminishing voice of the probation service
Cracknell, M. 2023. The diminishing voice of the probation service. Probation Quarterly. 27, pp. 35-40. https://doi.org/10.54006/BAFW7149
'Trying to make it matter': The challenges of assimilating a resettlement culture into a 'local' prison
Cracknell, M. 2023. 'Trying to make it matter': The challenges of assimilating a resettlement culture into a 'local' prison. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 23 (2), pp. 165-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/17488958211037469
Effective practice in resettlement
Cracknell, M. 2023. Effective practice in resettlement. Manchester, UK HM Inspectorate of Probation.
The resettlement experiences of people supported by the charity Prisoners Abroad
Cracknell, M. and Ward, J. 2022. The resettlement experiences of people supported by the charity Prisoners Abroad. Prisoners Abroad.
Running on the treadmill: Practitioner experiences of mass supervision
Cracknell, M. 2022. Running on the treadmill: Practitioner experiences of mass supervision. European Journal of Probation. 14 (2), pp. 109-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/20662203221104925
Resettlement: a people first approach to community (re)integration
Cracknell, M. and Flinterman, C. 2022. Resettlement: a people first approach to community (re)integration. in: Burke, L., Carr, N., Cluley, E., Collet, S. and McNeill, F. (ed.) Reimagining Probation Practice: Re-forming Rehabilitation in an Age of Penal Excess Routledge.
Trapped in a cycle: the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014 and the rise in recall to custody
Cracknell, M. 2022. Trapped in a cycle: the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014 and the rise in recall to custody. ECAN bulletin.
From the 'seamless sentence' to 'through the gate': understanding the common threads of resettlement policy failures
Cracknell, M. 2021. From the 'seamless sentence' to 'through the gate': understanding the common threads of resettlement policy failures. British Journal of Community Justice. 17 (2), pp. 86-103. https://doi.org/10.48411/pfz6-ba61
Assessing the resettlement reforms under transforming rehabilitation
Cracknell, M. 2021. Assessing the resettlement reforms under transforming rehabilitation. Probation Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.54006/WXGS7129
The resettlement net: ‘revolving door’ imprisonment and carceral (re)circulation
Cracknell, M. 2023. The resettlement net: ‘revolving door’ imprisonment and carceral (re)circulation. Punishment and Society: The International Journal of Penology. 25 (1), pp. 223-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/14624745211035837
Transforming rehabilitation: a failed experiment in throughcare and offender reintegration
Cracknell, M. and Trebilcock, J. 2020. Transforming rehabilitation: a failed experiment in throughcare and offender reintegration. in: Birch, P. and Sicard, L. (ed.) Prisons and Community Corrections Critical Issues and Emerging Controversies London Routledge. pp. 1-14
Post-sentence supervision: A case study of the extension of community resettlement support for short sentence prisoners
Cracknell, M. 2020. Post-sentence supervision: A case study of the extension of community resettlement support for short sentence prisoners. Probation Journal. 67 (4), pp. 340-357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264550520942834
Post-release reforms for short prison sentences: Re-legitimising and widening the net of punishment
Cracknell, M. 2018. Post-release reforms for short prison sentences: Re-legitimising and widening the net of punishment. Probation Journal. 65 (3), pp. 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264550518776779
Transformative learning through university and prison partnership: an evaluation of the Middlesex University and HMP Wandsworth Prison module
Ward, J., Gray, N. and Cracknell, M. 2017. Transformative learning through university and prison partnership: an evaluation of the Middlesex University and HMP Wandsworth Prison module. London Middlesex University.
Reflections on undertaking the Probation Qualifying Framework scheme during the transforming rehabilitation changes
Cracknell, M. 2016. Reflections on undertaking the Probation Qualifying Framework scheme during the transforming rehabilitation changes. Probation Journal. 63 (2), pp. 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264550516648401