What incentives encourage local communities to collect and upload mosquito sound data by using smartphones? A mixed methods study in Tanzania

Article


Dam, R., Mponzi, W., Msaky, D., Mwandyala, T., Kaindoa, E., Sinka, M., Kiskin, I., Herreros-Moya, E., Messina, J., Shah, S., Roberts, S. and Willis, K. 2023. What incentives encourage local communities to collect and upload mosquito sound data by using smartphones? A mixed methods study in Tanzania. Global Health Research and Policy. 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-023-00298-y
TypeArticle
TitleWhat incentives encourage local communities to collect and upload mosquito sound data by using smartphones? A mixed methods study in Tanzania
AuthorsDam, R., Mponzi, W., Msaky, D., Mwandyala, T., Kaindoa, E., Sinka, M., Kiskin, I., Herreros-Moya, E., Messina, J., Shah, S., Roberts, S. and Willis, K.
Abstract

Background
To detect and identify mosquitoes using their characteristic high-pitched sound, we have developed a smartphone application, known as the ‘HumBug sensor’, that records the acoustic signature of this sound, along with the time and location. This data is then sent remotely to a server where algorithms identify the species according to their distinctive acoustic signature. Whilst this system works well, a key question that remains is what mechanisms will lead to effective uptake and use of this mosquito survey tool? We addressed this question by working with local communities in rural Tanzania and providing three alternative incentives: money only, short message service (SMS) reminders and money, and SMS reminders only. We also had a control group with no incentive.

Methods
A multi-site, quantitative empirical study was conducted in four villages in Tanzania from April to August 2021. Consenting participants (n = 148) were recruited and placed into one of the three intervention arms: monetary incentives only; SMS reminders with monetary incentives; and SMS reminders only. There was also a control group (no intervention). To test effectiveness of the mechanisms, the number of audio uploads to the server of the four trial groups on their specific dates were compared. Qualitative focus group discussions and feedback surveys were also conducted to explore participants’ perspectives on their participation in the study and to capture their experiences of using the HumBug sensor.

Results
Qualitative data analysis revealed that for many participants (37 out of 81), the main motivation expressed was to learn more about the types of mosquitoes present in their houses. Results from the quantitative empirical study indicate that the participants in the ‘control’ group switched on their HumBug sensors more over the 14-week period (8 out of 14 weeks) when compared to those belonging to the ‘SMS reminders and monetary incentives’ trial group. These findings are statistically significant (p < 0.05 or p > 0.95 under a two-sided z-test), revealing that the provision of monetary incentives and sending SMS reminders did not appear to encourage greater number of audio uploads when compared to the control.

Conclusions
Knowledge on the presence of harmful mosquitoes was the strongest motive for local communities to collect and upload mosquito sound data via the HumBug sensor in rural Tanzania. This finding suggests that most efforts should be made to improve flow of real-time information back to the communities on types and risks associated with mosquitoes present in their houses.

KeywordsMosquito surveillance; Acoustic recognition; HumBug sensor; Digital citizen science; Community engagement; Mixed methods study
Sustainable Development Goals3 Good health and well-being
Middlesex University ThemeHealth & Wellbeing
PublisherBioMed Central
JournalGlobal Health Research and Policy
ISSN
Electronic2397-0642
Publication dates
Online29 May 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted07 Apr 2023
Deposited25 Mar 2024
Output statusPublished
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Copyright Statement

© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-023-00298-y
Web of Science identifierWOS:000995929800001
Related Output
Has metadatahttps://publons.com/wos-op/publon/53862593/
Permalink -

https://repository.mdx.ac.uk/item/w72x5

Download files


Publisher's version
  • 5
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Recruitment, retention, and training of citizen scientists in translational medicine research: a citizen science initiative on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Shah, S., Barrado-Martín, Y., Marjot, T., Tomlinson, J. and Kiparoglou, V. 2024. Recruitment, retention, and training of citizen scientists in translational medicine research: a citizen science initiative on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cureus: Journal of Medical Science. 16 (3). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.56038
Menstrual irregularities, hormonal imbalances and obesity in teenage and adolescent girls in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
Khaskheli, M., Durrani, R., Baloch, S., Baloch, A. and Shah, S. 2023. Menstrual irregularities, hormonal imbalances and obesity in teenage and adolescent girls in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Health Research. 37 (1), pp. 26-32.. https://doi.org/10.56808/2586-940X.1013
Adopting a citizen science approach in translational experimental medicine research in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a study protocol
Shah, S., Barrado-Martín, Y., Marjot, T., Tomlinson, J. and Kiparoglou, V. 2023. Adopting a citizen science approach in translational experimental medicine research in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a study protocol. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.555
Stages of gynaecological cancers at the time of first presentation at a large cancer hospital in Pakistan: An observational study
Khaskheli, M., Baloch, S., Khaskheli, S., Durrani, R., Jhatial, N. and Shah, S. 2023. Stages of gynaecological cancers at the time of first presentation at a large cancer hospital in Pakistan: An observational study. Dubai Medical Journal. 6 (4), pp. 274-279. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534211
Translational researchers' training and development needs, preferences, and barriers: a survey in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre in the United Kingdom
Bell, K., Shah, S., Henderson, L. and Kiparoglou, V. 2022. Translational researchers' training and development needs, preferences, and barriers: a survey in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre in the United Kingdom. Clinical and Translational Science. 15 (7), pp. 1737-1752. https://doi.org/10.1111/cts.13289
Perceptions of gender equity and markers of achievement in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre: a qualitative study
Henderson, L., Dam, R., Shah, S., Ovseiko, P. and Kiparoglou, V. 2022. Perceptions of gender equity and markers of achievement in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre: a qualitative study. Health Research Policy and Systems. 20 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-022-00904-4
Evaluation of the effectiveness of digital technology interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis
Shah, S., Nogueras, D., van Woerden, H. and Kiparoglou, V. 2021. Evaluation of the effectiveness of digital technology interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 23 (5). https://doi.org/10.2196/24712
Gender parity in scientific authorship in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre: a bibliometric analysis
Shah, S., Dam, R., Milano, M., Edmunds, L., Henderson, L., Hartley, C., Coxall, O., Ovseiko, P., Buchan, A. and Kiparoglou, V. 2021. Gender parity in scientific authorship in a National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre: a bibliometric analysis. BMJ Open. 11. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037935
A large National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre facilitates impactful cross-disciplinary and collaborative translational research publications and research collaboration networks: a bibliometric evaluation study
Kiparoglou, V., Brown, L., McShane, H., Channon, K. and Shah, S. 2021. A large National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre facilitates impactful cross-disciplinary and collaborative translational research publications and research collaboration networks: a bibliometric evaluation study. Journal of Translational Medicine. 19 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03149-x
Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes
Khaskheli, M., Baloch, S., Baloch, A. and Shah, S. 2021. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 37 (5), pp. 1302-1308. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187