# Performance and cryptographic evaluation of security protocols in distributed networks using applied pi calculus and Markov Chain

Article

Edris, E., Aiash, M., Khoshkholghi, A., Naha, R., Chowdhury, A. and Loo, J. 2023. Performance and cryptographic evaluation of security protocols in distributed networks using applied pi calculus and Markov Chain. Internet of Things. 24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iot.2023.100913
Type Article Performance and cryptographic evaluation of security protocols in distributed networks using applied pi calculus and Markov Chain Edris, E., Aiash, M., Khoshkholghi, A., Naha, R., Chowdhury, A. and Loo, J. The development of cryptographic protocols goes through two stages, namely, security verification and performance analysis. The verification of the protocol’s security properties could be analytically achieved using threat modelling, or formally using formal methods and model checkers. The performance analysis could be mathematical or simulation-based. However, mathematical modelling is complicated and does not reflect the actual deployment environment of the protocol in the current state of the art. Simulation software provides scalability and can simulate complicated scenarios, however, there are times when it is not possible to use simulations due to a lack of support for new technologies or simulation scenarios. Therefore, this paper proposes a formal method and analytical model for evaluating the performance of security protocols using applied pi-calculus and Markov Chain processes. It interprets algebraic processes and associates cryptographic operatives with quantitative measures to estimate and evaluate cryptographic costs. With this approach, the protocols are presented as processes using applied pi-calculus, and their security properties are an approximate abstraction of protocol equivalence based on the verification from ProVerif and evaluated using analytical and simulation models for quantitative measures. The interpretation of the quantities is associated with process transitions, rates, and measures as a cost of using cryptographic primitives. This method supports users’ input in analysing the protocol’s activities and performance. As a proof of concept, we deploy this approach to assess the performance of security protocols designed to protect large-scale, 5G-based Device-to-Device communications. We also conducted a performance evaluation of the protocols based on analytical and network simulator results to compare the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Security protocols; Formal methods; Formal verification; Applied pi calculus; Performance evaluation; 5G; Edge computing 9 Industry, innovation and infrastructure Sustainability Elsevier Internet of Things 2543-1536 2542-6605 07 Sep 2023 Dec 2023 14 Apr 2023 14 Aug 2023 25 Sep 2023 Published 1-s2.0-S2542660523002366-main.pdfLicenseCC BY 4.0File Access LevelOpen https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iot.2023.100913 WOS:001106587000001 English

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Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R., Middlesex University and Loughborough University 2010. Providing security in 4G systems: unveiling the challenges. Atmaca, T., Palicot, J., Amor, N., Tsiatsos, T., Marot, M. and Dini, O. (ed.) IEEE. pp. 439-444 https://doi.org/10.1109/AICT.2010.24
##### Security models for heterogeneous networking
Mapp, G., Aiash, M., Lasebae, A. and Phan, R. 2010. Security models for heterogeneous networking. Katsikas, S. (ed.) 4th International Conference on Security and Cryptography. Athens, Greece 26 - 28 Jul 2010 IEEE. pp. 1-4
##### Exploring efficient imperative handover mechanisms for heterogeneous wireless networks
Mapp, G., Shaikh, F., Aiash, M., Vanni, R., Augusto, M. and Moreira, E. 2009. Exploring efficient imperative handover mechanisms for heterogeneous wireless networks. Duresi, A., Barolli, L., Enokido, T., Uehara, M., Shakshuki, E. and Takizawa, M. (ed.) 12th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems. Indianapolis, Indiana 19 - 21 Aug 2009 IEEE. pp. 286-291 https://doi.org/10.1109/NBiS.2009.95