6LoWPAN: a study on QoS security threats and countermeasures using intrusion detection system approach

Article


Le, A., Loo, J., Lasebae, A., Aiash, M. and Luo, Y. 2012. 6LoWPAN: a study on QoS security threats and countermeasures using intrusion detection system approach. International Journal of Communication Systems. 25 (9), pp. 1189-1212. https://doi.org/10.1002/dac.2356
TypeArticle
Title6LoWPAN: a study on QoS security threats and countermeasures using intrusion detection system approach
AuthorsLe, A., Loo, J., Lasebae, A., Aiash, M. and Luo, Y.
Abstract

Fuelled to bring the Internet of Things concept to real life, the Internet Engineering Task Force is working on 6LoWPAN, in which the standard allows a vast number of smart objects to be deployed in local wireless sensor networks (WSNs) using the huge address space of IPv6 for data and information harvesting through the Internet. From the security point of view, 6LoWPAN/WSN will be open to security threats from the local network itself and the Internet. Cryptography techniques applied as the front line of defence or deterrent can easily be broken because of the weak secure nature of LoWPAN devices and the wireless environment. Compromised nodes could lead to insider attacks without being detected by any cryptography checking. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is, primarily needed as a second line of defence to monitor the network operations and raise an alarm in case of any anomaly. This paper analyses potential security threats in 6LoWPAN and reviews the current countermeasures, in particular, the IDS-based solutions for countering insider/internal threats. Additionally, it discovers three novel QoS-related security threats, namely rank attack, local repair attack, and resource depleting attack, which are more seriously affecting the routing protocol for low-power and lossy network, the routing protocol used to establish 6LoWPAN network topology. A new two-layer IDS concept is introduced as a countermeasure method for securing the routing protocol for low-power and lossy network-built network topology from the internal QoS attacks. Potential research works are also presented to provide baseline reference to researchers in this field.

KeywordsInternet of Things; 6LoWPAN; RPL; IDS; specification-based; anomaly; operation
Research GroupSensoLab group
PublisherWiley
JournalInternational Journal of Communication Systems
ISSN1074-5351
Electronic1099-1131
Publication dates
Print01 Sep 2012
Publication process dates
Deposited05 Jul 2013
Output statusPublished
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/dac.2356
Web of Science identifierWOS:000308080800007
LanguageEnglish
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Kos, J., Aiash, M., Loo, J. and Trček, D. 2015. U-sphere: strengthening scalable flat-name routing for decentralized networks. Computer Networks. 89, pp. 14-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2015.07.006
A formal analysis of authentication protocols for mobile devices in next generation networks
Aiash, M. 2015. A formal analysis of authentication protocols for mobile devices in next generation networks. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience. 27 (12), pp. 2938-2953. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.3260
An integrated authentication and authorization approach for the network of information architecture
Aiash, M. and Loo, J. 2015. An integrated authentication and authorization approach for the network of information architecture. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 50, pp. 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2014.06.004
Challenges and solutions for secure information centric networks: a case study of the NetInf architecture
Loo, J. and Aiash, M. 2015. Challenges and solutions for secure information centric networks: a case study of the NetInf architecture. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 50, pp. 64-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2014.06.003
A secure framework for communications in heterogeneous networks
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A. and Loo, J. 2014. A secure framework for communications in heterogeneous networks. WAINA 2014 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops. Victoria, BC 13 - 16 May 2014 pp. 841-846
Secure live virtual machines migration: issues and solutions
Aiash, M., Mapp, G. and Gemikonakli, O. 2014. Secure live virtual machines migration: issues and solutions. IEEE AINA 2014. Victoria, BC, Canada 13 - 16 May 2014
Comparison between resource reservation protocol and next steps in signalling in mobile IP networks
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2014. Comparison between resource reservation protocol and next steps in signalling in mobile IP networks. IET Networks. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-net.2013.0028
SLA based MT-routing for future internet
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2014. SLA based MT-routing for future internet. Wireless World Research Forum Meeting 32. Marrakech, Morocco 18 - 22 May 2014
An efficient traffic engineering based on multi-topology routing for future internet
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2014. An efficient traffic engineering based on multi-topology routing for future internet. Computer Networks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2014.05.008
Performance evaluation of LTE network via using fixed/mobile femtocells
Raheem, R., Lasebae, A. and Loo, J. 2014. Performance evaluation of LTE network via using fixed/mobile femtocells. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference. Victoria, BC, Canada 13 - 16 May 2014 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). pp. 255-260 https://doi.org/10.1109/WAINA.2014.51
Introducing a novel authentication protocol for secure services in heterogeneous environments using Casper/FDR
Aiash, M. and Loo, J. 2014. Introducing a novel authentication protocol for secure services in heterogeneous environments using Casper/FDR. International Journal of Communication Systems. 27 (12), pp. 3600-3618. https://doi.org/10.1002/dac.2561
Concern level assessment: building domain knowledge into a visual system to support network-security situation awareness
Kodagoda, N., Attfield, S., Choudhury, S., Rooney, C., Mapp, G., Nguyen, P., Slabbert, L., Wong, B., Aiash, M., Zheng, Y., Xu, K. and Lasebae, A. 2014. Concern level assessment: building domain knowledge into a visual system to support network-security situation awareness. Information Visualization. 13 (4), pp. 346-360. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473871613490291
Location privacy in mobile IPv6 distributed authentication protocol using mobile home agents
Georgiades, A., Luo, Y., Lasebae, A. and Comley, R. 2009. Location privacy in mobile IPv6 distributed authentication protocol using mobile home agents. Trilling, L., Perkins, D., Dionysios, D., Perlovsky, L., Davey, K., Landgrebe, D., Marino, M., Russell, D., Collicott, S., Ceccarelli, M. and Lund, J. (ed.) The 8th WSEAS International Conference on Electronics, Hardware, Wireless and Optical Communications (EHAC '09). Cambridge, UK 21 - 23 Feb 2009 WSEAS Press. pp. 51-56
Specification-based IDS for securing RPL from topology attacks
Le, A., Loo, J., Luo, Y. and Lasebae, A. 2011. Specification-based IDS for securing RPL from topology attacks. Wireless Days (WD), 2011 IFIP. https://doi.org/10.1109/WD.2011.6098218
Exchange routing information between new neighbor nodes to improve AODV performance
Le, A. and Luo, Y. 2009. Exchange routing information between new neighbor nodes to improve AODV performance. in: 6th international conference on Information Technology: New Generations, 2009. Proceedings IEEE Computer Society. pp. 1661-1662
Introducing mobile home agents into the distributed authentication protocol to achieve location privacy in mobile IPv6
Georgiades, A., Luo, Y., Lasebae, A. and Comley, R. 2008. Introducing mobile home agents into the distributed authentication protocol to achieve location privacy in mobile IPv6. International Journal of Communications. 2 (3), pp. 185-194.
Integrating mobility, quality-of-service and security in future mobile networks
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R. and Loo, J. 2013. Integrating mobility, quality-of-service and security in future mobile networks. in: Ao, S. and Gelman, L. (ed.) Electrical Engineering and Intelligent Systems New York Springer.
A novel security protocol for resolving addresses in the location/ID split architecture
Aiash, M. 2013. A novel security protocol for resolving addresses in the location/ID split architecture. The 7th International Conference on Network and System Security (NSS 2013). Spain 03 - 04 Jun 2013
Securing address registration in location/ID split protocol using ID-based cryptography
Aiash, M., Al-Nemrat, A. and Preston, D. 2013. Securing address registration in location/ID split protocol using ID-based cryptography. Tsaoussidis, V., Kassler, A., Koucheryavy, Y. and Mellouk, A. (ed.) In proceeding of: The 11th International Conference on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications WWIC 2013. Russia 05 - 07 Jun 2013 Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38401-1_10
An efficient resource reservation for domain based mobile IP networks: analytical approach
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2013. An efficient resource reservation for domain based mobile IP networks: analytical approach. IEEE 77th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2013-Spring). Dresden, Germany 02 - 05 Jun 2013
An integrated approach to QoS and security in future mobile networks using the Y-Comm framework
Aiash, M. 2012. An integrated approach to QoS and security in future mobile networks using the Y-Comm framework. PhD thesis Middlesex University School of Engineering and Information Sciences
From fixed to mobile femtocells in LTE systems: issues and challenges
Raheem, R., Lasebae, A., Aiash, M. and Loo, J. 2013. From fixed to mobile femtocells in LTE systems: issues and challenges. 2013 Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication Technology (FGCT). London, United Kingdom 12 - 14 Nov 2013 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). pp. 207-212 https://doi.org/10.1109/FGCT.2013.6767218
Efficient NSIS mobility support for mobile networks
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2013. Efficient NSIS mobility support for mobile networks. IEEE 24th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). London, UK 08 - 11 Sep 2013 IEEE. pp. 3354-3359 https://doi.org/10.1109/PIMRC.2013.6666727
On the investigation of cloud-based mobile media environments with service-populating and QoS-aware mechanisms
Sardis, F., Mapp, G., Loo, J., Aiash, M. and Vinel, A. 2013. On the investigation of cloud-based mobile media environments with service-populating and QoS-aware mechanisms. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia. 15 (4), pp. 769-777. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2013.2240286
Using aggregated RSVP in nested HMIPv6
Mirzamany, E., Lasebae, A. and Gemikonakli, O. 2012. Using aggregated RSVP in nested HMIPv6. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2012 8th International. IEEE. pp. 716 -721 https://doi.org/10.1109/IWCMC.2012.6314292
Exploiting location and contextual information to develop a comprehensive framework for proactive handover in heterogeneous environments
Mapp, G., Katsriku, F., Aiash, M., Chinnam, N., Lopes, R., Moreira, E., Vanni, R., Augusto, M., Middlesex University and University of Sao Paulo 2012. Exploiting location and contextual information to develop a comprehensive framework for proactive handover in heterogeneous environments. Journal of Computer Networks and Communications. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/748163
A formally verified device authentication protocol using Casper/FDR
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Phan, R., Lasebae, A. and Loo, J. 2012. A formally verified device authentication protocol using Casper/FDR. Min, G., Wu, Y., Liu, L., Jin, X., Jarvis, S. and Al-Dubai, A. (ed.) 11th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom-2012). Liverpool, UK 25 - 27 Jun 2012 IEEE. pp. 1293-1298 https://doi.org/10.1109/TrustCom.2012.27
A survey of potential architectures for communication in heterogeneous networks
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Loo, J., Sardis, F., Phan, R., Augusto, M., Moreira, E. and Vanni, R. 2012. A survey of potential architectures for communication in heterogeneous networks. IEEE Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS 2012). London 18 - 20 Apr 2012 IEEE. pp. 1-6 https://doi.org/10.1109/WTS.2012.6266121
Evaluation of wireless IEEE 802.11(b) used for ad-hoc networks in an e-learning classroom network
Ghosh, A., Lasebae, A. and Ever, E. 2009. Evaluation of wireless IEEE 802.11(b) used for ad-hoc networks in an e-learning classroom network. Kaspersky IT Security Conference for the Next Generation.
Security and QoS integration for protecting service providers in hterogeneous environments
Aiash, M., Mapp, G. and Lasebae, A. 2011. Security and QoS integration for protecting service providers in hterogeneous environments. International Journal of Computer Science. 38 (4), pp. 384-393.
M-Sieve: a visualisation tool for supporting network security analysts
Choudhury, S., Kodagoda, N., Nguyen, P., Rooney, C., Attfield, S., Xu, K., Zheng, Y., Wong, B., Chen, R., Mapp, G., Slabbert, L., Aiash, M. and Lasebae, A. 2012. M-Sieve: a visualisation tool for supporting network security analysts. VisWeek 2012. Seattle, WA, USA 14 - 19 Oct 2012
A formally verified AKA protocol for vertical handover inheterogeneous environments using Casper/FDR
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R. and Loo, J. 2012. A formally verified AKA protocol for vertical handover inheterogeneous environments using Casper/FDR. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking. 2012 (57). https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1499-2012-57
Stream bundle management layer for optimum management of co-existing telemedicine traffic streams under varying channel conditions in heterogeneous networks.
Shaikh, F., Lasebae, A., Mapp, G. and Middlesex University 2005. Stream bundle management layer for optimum management of co-existing telemedicine traffic streams under varying channel conditions in heterogeneous networks. MIT 2005. China
Proactive policy management for heterogeneous networks
Shaikh, F., Lasebae, A., Mapp, G. and Middlesex University 2008. Proactive policy management for heterogeneous networks. 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies: from Theory to Applications (ICTTA 2008). Umayyad Palace, Damascus, Syria 07 - 11 Apr 2008
Client-based SBM layer for predictive management of traffic flows in heterogeneous networks
Shaikh, F., Lasebae, A., Mapp, G. and Middlesex University 2006. Client-based SBM layer for predictive management of traffic flows in heterogeneous networks. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies: from Theory to Applications (ICTTA 2006). Damascus, Syria 24 - 28 Apr 2006
A survey of network coverage prediction mechanisms in 4G heterogeneous wireless networks.
Shaikh, F., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., British Institute of Technology and e-Commerce and Middlesex University 2011. A survey of network coverage prediction mechanisms in 4G heterogeneous wireless networks. First Global Conference on Communication, Science and Information Engineering (CCSIE 2011). Middlesex University 25 - 27 Jul 2011
Exploring the concept of scope to provide better security for internet services.
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R., Middlesex University and Loughborough University 2011. Exploring the concept of scope to provide better security for internet services. First Global Conference on Communication, Science and Engineering (CCSIE 2011). Middlesex University 25 - 27 Jul 2011
Enhancing naming and location services to support multi-homed devices in heterogeneous environments
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R., Augusto, M., Vanni, R., Moreira, E., Middlesex University, Loughborough University and University of Sao Paulo 2011. Enhancing naming and location services to support multi-homed devices in heterogeneous environments. First Conference on Communication, Science and Information Enginneering (CCSIE 2011). Middlesex University 25 - 27 Jul 2011
Proactive policy management using TBVH mechanism in heterogeneous networks.
Shaikh, F., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A. and Middlesex University 2007. Proactive policy management using TBVH mechanism in heterogeneous networks. Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibition on 'Next Generation Mobile Application, Services and Technologies' (NGMAST 2007). Cardiff, Wales 12 - 14 Sep 2007
A QoS framework for heterogeneous networking
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Augusto, M., Vanni, R. and Moreira, E. 2011. A QoS framework for heterogeneous networking. ICWN'11: The 2011 International Conference of Wireless Networks (held as part of WCE 2011). London, UK 06 - 08 Jul 2011
Exploring multi-homing issues in heterogeneous networks
Mapp, G., Aiash, M., Guardia, H., Crowcroft, J., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Middlesex University, Federal University of Sao Paulo and University of Cambridge 2011. Exploring multi-homing issues in heterogeneous networks. IEEE. pp. 690-695 https://doi.org/10.1109/WAINA.2011.140
Investigation of a mechatronic device for the remedial treatment of brain injured children.
Lasebae, A. 1999. Investigation of a mechatronic device for the remedial treatment of brain injured children. PhD thesis Middlesex University School of Engineering Systems
Providing security in 4G systems: unveiling the challenges
Aiash, M., Mapp, G., Lasebae, A., Phan, R., Middlesex University and Loughborough University 2010. Providing security in 4G systems: unveiling the challenges. Atmaca, T., Palicot, J., Amor, N., Tsiatsos, T., Marot, M. and Dini, O. (ed.) IEEE. pp. 439-444 https://doi.org/10.1109/AICT.2010.24
Security models for heterogeneous networking
Mapp, G., Aiash, M., Lasebae, A. and Phan, R. 2010. Security models for heterogeneous networking. Katsikas, S. (ed.) 4th International Conference on Security and Cryptography. Athens, Greece 26 - 28 Jul 2010 IEEE. pp. 1-4
Critical analysis of high speed wireless standards for transferring telementoring information
Shaikh, F., Lasebae, A. and Whitney, G. 2004. Critical analysis of high speed wireless standards for transferring telementoring information. in: ICTTA'04: 2004 International conference on information & communication technologies: from theory to applications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: French section.
Using unified process to develop an online survey application.
Luo, Y. and Zhao, H. 2005. Using unified process to develop an online survey application. in: Proceedings of the IADIS international conference WWW/Internet 2005. IADIS.
A multi-agent decision support system for stock trading
Luo, Y., Liu, K. and Davis, D. 2002. A multi-agent decision support system for stock trading. IEEE network. 16 (1), pp. 20-27.
Using KADS to design a multi-agent framework for stock trading.
Luo, Y., Liu, K. and Davis, D. 2001. Using KADS to design a multi-agent framework for stock trading. in: Arabnia, H. (ed.) Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence(IC-AI'2001). CSREA Press. pp. 1149-1156
Information and knowledge exchange in a multi-agent system for stock trading.
Luo, Y., Davis, D. and Liu, K. 2001. Information and knowledge exchange in a multi-agent system for stock trading. in: Jakobson, G. and Ray, P. (ed.) 2001 enterprise networking, applications and services conference proceedings: entnet@supercomm2001. IEEE. pp. 47-55
A new distributed Java-based agents environment
Luo, Y. and Zhou, Z. 2000. A new distributed Java-based agents environment. Mini-micro systems. 21 (11), pp. 1227-1230.
A multi-agent framework for stock trading.
Luo, Y., Liu, K. and Davis, D. 2000. A multi-agent framework for stock trading. in: Shi, Z., Faltings, B. and Musen, M. (ed.) Proceedings of conference on intelligent information processing. Beijing Publishing House of Electronics Industry of China. pp. 470-477
Dual identity return routability for the security of mobile IPv6 binding updates within the distributed authentication protocol.
Luo, Y., Lasebae, A., Comley, R. and Georgiades, A. 2006. Dual identity return routability for the security of mobile IPv6 binding updates within the distributed authentication protocol. in: WSEAS Conferences: Elounda, Agios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, August 18-20, 2006 Athens WSEAS.
Distributed authentication protocol utilizing dual identity return routability for the security of binding updates within mobile IPv6.
Luo, Y., Lasebae, A., Comley, R. and Georgiades, A. 2006. Distributed authentication protocol utilizing dual identity return routability for the security of binding updates within mobile IPv6. WSEAS transactions on communications. 5 (10), pp. 1109-2742.
Distributed authentication protocol for the security of binding updates in mobile IPv6.
Luo, Y., Lasebae, A., Comley, R. and Georgiades, A. 2005. Distributed authentication protocol for the security of binding updates in mobile IPv6. in: Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS international CSCC multiconference: circuits 05, systems 05, computers 05, communications 05. WSEAS.
Binding update security for mobile IPv6 using a distributed authentication protocol.
Luo, Y., Lasebae, A., Comley, R. and Georgiades, A. 2005. Binding update security for mobile IPv6 using a distributed authentication protocol. WSEAS transactions on communications. 4 (9), pp. 1109-2742.
Trinity protocol for authentication of binding updates in mobile IPv6.
Luo, Y., Comley, R., Lasebae, A. and Georgiades, A. 2004. Trinity protocol for authentication of binding updates in mobile IPv6. WSEAS transactions on communications. 3 (3), pp. 872-877.
Combining KADS with Zeus to develop a multi-agent e-commerce application.
Luo, Y., Davis, D. and Liu, K. 2003. Combining KADS with Zeus to develop a multi-agent e-commerce application. Electronic commerce research. 3 (3-4), pp. 315-335. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023483208268
Computing migration through context awareness and context transmission.
Luo, Y., Cheng, Z. and Chin, K. 2003. Computing migration through context awareness and context transmission. in: Proceedings of the IADIS international conference WWW/Internet 2003. IADIS. pp. 386-394
Exploring efficient imperative handover mechanisms for heterogeneous wireless networks
Mapp, G., Shaikh, F., Aiash, M., Vanni, R., Augusto, M. and Moreira, E. 2009. Exploring efficient imperative handover mechanisms for heterogeneous wireless networks. Duresi, A., Barolli, L., Enokido, T., Uehara, M., Shakshuki, E. and Takizawa, M. (ed.) 12th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems. Indianapolis, Indiana 19 - 21 Aug 2009 IEEE. pp. 286-291 https://doi.org/10.1109/NBiS.2009.95