Factors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar

Article


Eppley, T.M., Hoeks, S., Chapman, C.A., Ganzhorn, J.U., Hall, K., Owen, M.A., Adams, D.B., Allgas, N., Amato, K.R., Andriamahaihavana, M., Aristizabal, J.F., Baden, A.L., Balestri, M., Barnett, A., Bicca-Marques, J.C., Bowler, M., Boyle, S.A., Brown, M., Caillaud, D., Calegaro-Marques, C., Campbell, C.J., Campera, M., Campos, F. A., Cardoso, T.S., Carretero-Pinzón, X., Champion, J., Chaves, Ó.M., Chen-Kraus, C., Colquhoun, I.C., Dean, B., Dubrueil, C., Ellis, K.M., Erhart, E.M., Evans, K.J.E., Fedigan, L.M., Felton, A.M., Ferreira, R.G., Fichtel, C., Fonseca, M.L., Fontes, I.P., Fortes, V.B., Fumian, I., Gibson, D., Guzzo, G.B., Hartwell, K.S., Heymann, E.W., Hilário, R.R., Holmes, S.M., Irwin, M.T., Johnson, S.E., Kappeler, P.M., Kelley, E.A., King, T., Knogge, C., Koch, F., Kowalewski, M.M., Lange, L.R., Lauterbur, M.E., Louis, E.E., Lutz, M.C, Martínez, J., Melin, A.D., de Melo, F.R., Mihaminekena, T.H., Mogilewsky, M.S., Moreira, L.S., Moura, L.A., Muhle, C.B., Nagy-Reis, M.B., Norconk, M.A., Notman, H., O’Mara, M. T., Ostner, J., Patel, E.R., Pavelka, M.S.M., Pinacho-Guendulain, B., Porter, L.M., Pozo-Montuy, G., Raboy, B.E., Rahalinarivo, V., Raharinoro, N.A., Rakotomalala, Z., Ramos-Fernández, G., Rasamisoa, D.C., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Razafindramanana, J., Razanaparany, T.P., Righini, N., Robson, N.M., Gonçalves, J.R., Sanamo, J., Santacruz, N., Sato, H., Sauther, M.L., Scarry, C.J., Serio-Silva, J.C., Shanee, S., Lins, P., Smith, A.C., Smith Aguilar, S.E., Souza-Alves, J.P., Stavis, V.K., Steffens, K.J.E., Stone, A.I., Strier, K.B., Suarez, S.A., Talebi, M., Tecot, S.R., Tujague, M.P., Valenta, K., Van Belle, S., Vasey, N., Wallace, R.B., Welch, G., Wright, P. C., Donati, G. and Santini, L. 2022. Factors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (42), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121105119
TypeArticle
TitleFactors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar
AuthorsEppley, T.M., Hoeks, S., Chapman, C.A., Ganzhorn, J.U., Hall, K., Owen, M.A., Adams, D.B., Allgas, N., Amato, K.R., Andriamahaihavana, M., Aristizabal, J.F., Baden, A.L., Balestri, M., Barnett, A., Bicca-Marques, J.C., Bowler, M., Boyle, S.A., Brown, M., Caillaud, D., Calegaro-Marques, C., Campbell, C.J., Campera, M., Campos, F. A., Cardoso, T.S., Carretero-Pinzón, X., Champion, J., Chaves, Ó.M., Chen-Kraus, C., Colquhoun, I.C., Dean, B., Dubrueil, C., Ellis, K.M., Erhart, E.M., Evans, K.J.E., Fedigan, L.M., Felton, A.M., Ferreira, R.G., Fichtel, C., Fonseca, M.L., Fontes, I.P., Fortes, V.B., Fumian, I., Gibson, D., Guzzo, G.B., Hartwell, K.S., Heymann, E.W., Hilário, R.R., Holmes, S.M., Irwin, M.T., Johnson, S.E., Kappeler, P.M., Kelley, E.A., King, T., Knogge, C., Koch, F., Kowalewski, M.M., Lange, L.R., Lauterbur, M.E., Louis, E.E., Lutz, M.C, Martínez, J., Melin, A.D., de Melo, F.R., Mihaminekena, T.H., Mogilewsky, M.S., Moreira, L.S., Moura, L.A., Muhle, C.B., Nagy-Reis, M.B., Norconk, M.A., Notman, H., O’Mara, M. T., Ostner, J., Patel, E.R., Pavelka, M.S.M., Pinacho-Guendulain, B., Porter, L.M., Pozo-Montuy, G., Raboy, B.E., Rahalinarivo, V., Raharinoro, N.A., Rakotomalala, Z., Ramos-Fernández, G., Rasamisoa, D.C., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Razafindramanana, J., Razanaparany, T.P., Righini, N., Robson, N.M., Gonçalves, J.R., Sanamo, J., Santacruz, N., Sato, H., Sauther, M.L., Scarry, C.J., Serio-Silva, J.C., Shanee, S., Lins, P., Smith, A.C., Smith Aguilar, S.E., Souza-Alves, J.P., Stavis, V.K., Steffens, K.J.E., Stone, A.I., Strier, K.B., Suarez, S.A., Talebi, M., Tecot, S.R., Tujague, M.P., Valenta, K., Van Belle, S., Vasey, N., Wallace, R.B., Welch, G., Wright, P. C., Donati, G. and Santini, L.
Abstract

Among mammals, the order Primates is exceptional in having a high taxonomic richness in which the taxa are arboreal, semiterrestrial, or terrestrial. Although habitual terrestriality is pervasive among the apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), it is largely absent among monkeys of the Americas (platyrrhines), as well as galagos, lemurs, and lorises (strepsirrhines), which are mostly arboreal. Numerous ecological drivers and species-specific factors are suggested to set the conditions for an evolutionary shift from arboreality to terrestriality, and current environmental conditions may provide analogous scenarios to those transitional periods. Therefore, we investigated predominantly arboreal, diurnal primate genera from the Americas and Madagascar that lack fully terrestrial taxa, to determine whether ecological drivers (habitat canopy cover, predation risk, maximum temperature, precipitation, primate species richness, human population density, and distance to roads) or species-specific traits (body mass, group size, and degree of frugivory) associate with increased terrestriality. We collated 150,961 observation hours across 2,227 months from 47 species at 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. Multiple factors were associated with ground use in these otherwise arboreal species, including increased temperature, a decrease in canopy cover, a dietary shift away from frugivory, and larger group size. These factors mostly explain intraspecific differences in terrestriality. As humanity modifies habitats and causes climate change, our results suggest that species already inhabiting hot, sparsely canopied sites, and exhibiting more generalized diets, are more likely to shift toward greater ground use.

Keywordsprimate communities; primate evolution; evolutionary transitions; niche shift; climate change
Sustainable Development Goals15 Life on land
Middlesex University ThemeSustainability
Research GroupBehavioural Biology group
LanguageEnglish
PublisherNational Academy of Sciences, U. S.
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
ISSN0027-8424
Electronic1091-6490
Publication dates
Online10 Oct 2022
Print18 Oct 2022
Publication process dates
Submitted19 Nov 2021
Accepted22 Aug 2022
Deposited19 Feb 2024
Output statusPublished
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Copyright Statement

Copyright © 2022 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121105119
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