A longitudinal study of the experiences and psychological well-being of Indian surrogates

Conference item


Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K. and Golombok, S. 2016. A longitudinal study of the experiences and psychological well-being of Indian surrogates. 32nd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. Helsinki, Finland 03 - 06 Jul 2016
TitleA longitudinal study of the experiences and psychological well-being of Indian surrogates
AuthorsLamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K. and Golombok, S.
Abstract

Study question: What is the psychological well-being of Indian surrogates during and after the surrogacy pregnancy?
Summary answer: Surrogates were similar to a matched group of expectant mothers on anxiety and stress. However, they scored higher on depression during and after pregnancy.
What is known already: The recent ban on trans-national commercial surrogacy in India has led to urgent policy discussions regarding surrogacy. Whilst previous studies have reported the motivations and experiences of Indian surrogates no studies have systematically examined the psychological well-being of Indian surrogates, especially from a longitudinal perspective. Previous research has shown that Indian surrogates are motivated by financial payment and may face criticism from their family and community due to negative social stigma attached to surrogacy. Indian surrogates often recruited by agencies and mainly live together in a “surrogacy house.”
Study design, size, duration: A longitudinal study was conducted comparing surrogates to a matched group of expectant mothers over two time points: (a) during pregnancy (Phase1: 50 surrogates, 70 expectant mothers) and (b) 4–6 months after delivery (Phase 2: 45 surrogates, 49 expectant mothers). The Surrogates were recruited from a fertility clinic in Mumbai and the matched comparison group was recruited from four public hospitals in Mumbai and Delhi.
Data collection was completed over 2 years.
Participants/materials, setting, methods: Surrogates and expectant mothers were aged between 23 and 36 years. All participants were from a low socio-economic background and had left school before 12–13 years of age. In-depth faceto-face semi-structured interviews and a psychological questionnaire assessing anxiety, stress and depression were administered in Hindi to both groups. Interviews took place in a private setting. Audio recordings of surrogate interviews were later translated and transcribed into English.
Main results and the role of chance: Stress and anxiety levels did not significantly differ between the two groups for both phases of the study. For depression, surrogates were found to be significantly more depressed than expectant mothers at phase 1 (p = 0.012) and phase 2 (p = 0.017). Within the surrogacy group, stress and depression did not change during and after pregnancy. However, a non-significant trend was found showing that anxiety decreased after delivery (p = 0.086). No participants reported being coerced into surrogacy, however nearly all kept it a secret from their wider family and community and hence did not face criticism. Surrogates lived at the surrogate house for different durations. During pregnancy, 66% (N = 33/50) reported their experiences of the surrogate house as positive, 24% (N = 12/50) as negative and 10% (N = 5/50) as neutral. After delivery, most surrogates (66%, N = 30/45) reported their experiences of surrogacy to be positive, with the remainder viewing it as neutral (28%) or negative (4%). In addition, most (66%, N = 30/45) reported that they had felt “socially supported and loved” during the surrogacy arrangement by friends in the surrogate hostel, clinic staff or family. Most surrogates did not meet the intending parents (49%, N = 22/45) or the resultant child (75%, N = 34/45).
Limitations, reasons for caution: Since the surrogates were recruited from only one clinic, the findings may not be representative of all Indian surrogates. Some were lost to follow-up which may have produced sampling bias.
Wider implications of the findings: This is the first study to examine the psychological well-being of surrogates in India. This research is of relevance to current policy discussions in India regarding legislation on surrogacy. Moreover, the findings are of relevance to clinicians, counselors and other professionals involved in surrogacy.
Trial registration number: N/A.

Middlesex University ThemeHealth & Wellbeing
LanguageEnglish
Conference32nd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology
Publication dates
Print03 Jul 2016
Publication process dates
Deposited04 Oct 2022
Accepted03 Feb 2016
Output statusPublished
Accepted author manuscript
Permalink -

https://repository.mdx.ac.uk/item/8q0ww

Download files


Accepted author manuscript
  • 27
    total views
  • 64
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 10
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Intimate partner violence: laws on sexual violence
Khokhlova, O., Allen, K. and Lamba, N. 2023. Intimate partner violence: laws on sexual violence. in: Shackelford, T. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Domestic Violence Cham Springer.
Body appreciation around the world: Measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age.
Swami, V., Tran, U.S., Stieger, S., Aavik, T., Ranjbar, H.A., Adebayo, S.O., Afhami, R., Ahmed, O., Aimé, A., Akel, M., Halbusi, H., Alexias, G., Ali, K.F., Alp-Dal, N., Alsalhani, A.B., Álvares-Solas, S., Amaral, A.C.S., Andrianto, S., Aspden, T., Argyrides, M., Aruta, J.J.B.R., Atkin, S., Ayandele, O., Baceviciene, M., Bahbouh, R., Ballesio, A., Barron, D., Bellard, A., Bender, S.S., Beydağ, K.D., Birovljević, G., Blackburn, M.-È., Borja-Alvarez, T., Borowiec, J., Bozogáňová, M., Bratland-Sanda, S., Browning, M.H.E.M., Brytek-Matera, A., Burakova, M., Çakır-Koçak, Y., Camacho, P., Camilleri, V.E., Cazzato, V., Cerea, S., Chaiwutikornwanich, A., Chaleeraktrakoon, T., Chambers, T., Chen, Q.-W., Chen, X., Chien, C.-L., Chobthamkit, P., Choompunuch, B., Compte, E.J., Corrigan, J., Cosmas, G., Cowden, R.G., Czepczor-Bernat, K., Czub, M., da Silva, W.R., Dadfar, M., Dalley, S.E., Dany, L., Datu, J.A.D., Berbert de Carvalho, P.H., Coelho, G.L.de H., De Jesus, A.O.S., Debbabi, S.H., Dhakal, S., Di Bernardo, F., Dimitrova, D.D., Dion, J., Dixson, B., Donofrio, S.M., Drysch, M., Du, H., Dzhambov, A.M., El-Jor, C., Enea, V., Eskin, M., Farbod, F., Farrugia, L., Fian, L., Fisher, M.L., Folwarczny, M., Frederick, D.A., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Furnham, A., García, A.A., Geller, S., Ghisi, M., Ghorbani, A., Martinez, M.A.G., Gradidge, S., Graf, S., Grano, C., Gyene, G., Hallit, S., Hamdan, M., Handelzalts, J.E., Hanel, P.H.P., Hawks, S.R., Hekmati, I., Helmy, M., Hill, T., Hina, F., Holenweger, G., Hřebíčková, M., Ijabadeniyi, O.A., Imam, A., İnce, B., Irrazabal, N., Jankauskiene, R., Jiang, D.-Y., Jiménez-Borja, M., Jiménez-Borja, V., Johnson, E.M., Jovanović, V., Jović, M., Jović, M., Junqueira, A.C.P., Kahle, L.-M., Kantanista, A., Karakiraz, A., Karkin, A.N., Kasten, E., Khatib, S., Khieowan, N., Kimong, Patricia J., Kiropoulos, L., Knittel, J., Kohli, N., Koprivnik, M., Kospakov, A., Król-Zielińska, M., Krug, I., Kuan, G., Kueh, Y.C., Kujan, O., Kukić, M., Kumar, S., Kumar, V., Lamba, N., Lauri, M.A., Laus, M.F., LeBlanc, L.A., Lee, H.J., Lipowska, M., Lipowski, M., Lombardo, C., Lukács, A., Maïano, C., Malik, S., Manjary, M., Baldó, L.M., Martinez-Banfi, M., Massar, K., Matera, C., McAnirlin, O., Mebarak, M.R., Mechri, A., Meireles, J.F. F., Mesko, N., Mills, J., Miyairi, M., Modi, R., Modrzejewska, A., Modrzejewska, J., Mulgrew, K.E., Myers, T.A., Namatame, H., Nassani, M.Z., Nerini, A., Neto, F., Neto, J., Neves, A.N., Ng, S.-K., Nithiya, D., O, Jiaqing, Obeid, S., Oda-Montecinos, C., Olapegba, P.O., Olonisakin, T.T., Omar, S.S., Örlygsdóttir, B., Özsoy, E., Otterbring, T., Pahl, S., Panasiti, M.S., Park, Y., Patwary, M.M., Pethö, T., Petrova, N., Pietschnig, J., Pourmahmoud, S., Prabhu, V.G., Poštuvan, V., Prokop, P., Ramseyer Winter, V.L., Razmus, M., Ru, T., Rupar, M., Sahlan, R.N., Hassan, M.S., Šalov, A., Sapkota, S., Sarfo, J.O., Sawamiya, Y., Schaefer, K., Schulte-Mecklenbeck, M., Seekis, V., Selvi, K., Sharifi, M., Shrivastava, A., Siddique, R.F., Sigurdsson, V., Silkane, V., Šimunić, A., Singh, G., Slezáčková, A., Sundgot-Borgen, C., Ten Hoor, G., Tevichapong, P., Tipandjan, A., Todd, J., Togas, C., Tonini, F., Tovar-Castro, J.C., Trangsrud, L.K.J., Tripathi, P., Tudorel, O., Tylka, T.L., Uyzbayeva, A., Vally, Z., Vanags, E., Vega, L.D., Vicente-Arruebarrena, A., Vidal-Mollón, J., Vilar, R., Villegas, H., Vintilă, M., Wallner, C., White, M.P., Whitebridge, S., Windhager, S., Wong, K.Y., Yau, E.K., Yamamiya, Y., Yeung, V.W.L., Zanetti, M.C., Zawisza, M., Zeeni, N., Zvaríková, M. and Voracek, M. 2023. Body appreciation around the world: Measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age. Body Image. 46, pp. 449-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2023.07.010
Evaluating student evaluations: Evidence of gender bias against women in higher education based on perceived learning and instructor personality.
Khokhlova, O., Lamba, N. and Kishore, S. 2023. Evaluating student evaluations: Evidence of gender bias against women in higher education based on perceived learning and instructor personality. Frontiers in Education. 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2023.1158132
Experiences, psychological health, and prenatal bonding of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study
Lamba, N. 2023. Experiences, psychological health, and prenatal bonding of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study. Research Invited Talk, IPPN, Kings College London. Kings College London 07 - 07 Aug 2023
Maternal mental health of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study
Lamba, N. 2023. Maternal mental health of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study. Invited Research Talk, Suffolk University. University of Suffolk 17 - 17 Jul 2023
Experiences, psychological health, and prenatal bonding of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study
Lamba, N. 2023. Experiences, psychological health, and prenatal bonding of surrogate mothers: a longitudinal study. Invited Research Talk, IPPN, NYU Abu Dhabi. NYU Abu Dhabi 13 - 13 Apr 2023
Exploring media-induced secondary trauma during COVID-19: A global perspective
Lamba, N., Khokhlova, O., Bhatia, A. and McHugh, C. 2023. Exploring media-induced secondary trauma during COVID-19: A global perspective. Health Psychology Open. 10 (2). https://doi.org/10.1177/20551029231199578
Who is more ‘human-like’? Exploring gender and race in perception of avatars in an online classroom
Lamba, N., Kishore, S. and Khokhlova, O. 2023. Who is more ‘human-like’? Exploring gender and race in perception of avatars in an online classroom. 11th European Conference on Education (ECE2023). London, UK, and Online 13 - 17 Jul 2023
Understanding the impact of cross-cultural friendships and residency status on multicultural attitudes: a UAE perspective
Lamba, N., Mohideen, F., Virani, T., Kariappa, S., Aroz, V., Bind Ashraf, H., Udaipurwala, Z., Dsouza, C., Rodrigues, S., Paulson, A. and Patil, A. 2023. Understanding the impact of cross-cultural friendships and residency status on multicultural attitudes: a UAE perspective. International Journal of Sustainable Society. 15 (2), pp. 113-224. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSSOC.2023.10057169
Unpacking qualitative methodology to explore experiences of mothers with children with autism spectrum disorder in the UAE: a thematic analysis inquiry
Lamba, N., Van Tonder, A. and Raghavan, A. 2022. Unpacking qualitative methodology to explore experiences of mothers with children with autism spectrum disorder in the UAE: a thematic analysis inquiry. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 21, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/16094069221110295
Helpful or not? Appraisal and mechanisms of prosociality in the dark triad
Puthillam, A., Mehta, N., Kapoor, H., Rezaei, S. and Lamba, N. 2022. Helpful or not? Appraisal and mechanisms of prosociality in the dark triad. PsyArXiv.org. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/u8agb
Using virtual avatars to explore the impact of instructors' gender, race, and qualification on perceived learning in an online classroom
Lamba, N., Kishore, S. and Khokhlova, O. 2022. Using virtual avatars to explore the impact of instructors' gender, race, and qualification on perceived learning in an online classroom. The 10th European Conference on Education. London, UK 14 - 17 Jul 2022
Challenges and support structures of mothers with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United Arab Emirates: A thematic analysis
Lamba, N. 2022. Challenges and support structures of mothers with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United Arab Emirates: A thematic analysis. 4th European Autism Congress. Webinar 13 - 14 May 2022
Multinational evaluation of the measurement invariance of the level of personality functioning scale–brief form 2.0: comparison of student and community samples across seven countries
Natoli, A., Bach, B., Behn, A., Cottin, M., Gritti, E., Hutsebaut, J., Lamba, N., Le Corff, Y., Zimmerman, J. and Lapalme, M. 2022. Multinational evaluation of the measurement invariance of the level of personality functioning scale–brief form 2.0: comparison of student and community samples across seven countries. Psychological Assessment. 34 (12), pp. 1112-1125. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0001176
Exploring challenges and support structures of mothers with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United Arab Emirates
Lamba, N., Van Tonder, A., Shrivastava, A. and Raghavan, A. 2022. Exploring challenges and support structures of mothers with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United Arab Emirates. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104138
Media-induced secondary trauma during covid-19
Lamba, N. 2021. Media-induced secondary trauma during covid-19. 34th International conference on Psychiatry and Mental Health. Online 20 Aug 2021
Just wrong? Or just WEIRD? Investigating the prevalence of moral dumbfounding in non-Western samples
McHugh, C., Zhang, R., Karnatak, T., Lamba, N. and Khokhlova, O. 2021. Just wrong? Or just WEIRD? Investigating the prevalence of moral dumbfounding in non-Western samples. PsyArXiv.org. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/zxfbj
Religious factors affecting death anxiety in older adults practicing Hinduism
Lamba, N., Bhatia, A., Shrivastava, A. and Raghavan, A. 2022. Religious factors affecting death anxiety in older adults practicing Hinduism. Death Studies. 46 (8), pp. 1973-1981. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2021.1876789
Describing a research process
Lamba, N. 2021. Describing a research process. YLAC - Young Leaders of Active Citizenship. Online 22 Aug 2021
Biowarfare conspiracy, faith in government, and compliance with safety guidelines during COVID-19: an international study
Khokhlova, O., Lamba, N., Bhatia, A. and Vinogradova, M. 2021. Biowarfare conspiracy, faith in government, and compliance with safety guidelines during COVID-19: an international study. Mind and Society. 20 (2), pp. 235-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11299-021-00282-4
To have and to hold: marital rape perception in Russian women
Khokhlova, O. and Lamba, N. 2020. To have and to hold: marital rape perception in Russian women. 4th European Conference on Domestic Violence. Online from Slovenia
Factors associated with perception of marital rape in India
Lamba, N. and Khokhlova, O. 2020. Factors associated with perception of marital rape in India. 4th European Conference on Domestic Violence. Online from Slovenia
The resonance of Sushant Singh: A sociological and psychological exploration
Lamba, N. 2020. The resonance of Sushant Singh: A sociological and psychological exploration. Express Group.
Does the coronavirus pandemic carry signs of a generational trauma?
Lamba, N. 2020. Does the coronavirus pandemic carry signs of a generational trauma? Scroll.in.
Blurring lines between fiction and reality: Perspectives of experts on marketing effectiveness of virtual influencers
Evangelos, M., Lamba, N., Mahmoud, D. and Ranganathan, C. 2020. Blurring lines between fiction and reality: Perspectives of experts on marketing effectiveness of virtual influencers. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). Online 15 - 19 Jun 2020
Virtual influencers in digital marketing: innovative trend or passing fad?
Moustakas, E., Ranganathan, C. and Lamba, N. 2020. Virtual influencers in digital marketing: innovative trend or passing fad? in: Koutra, C. and Ahmad, H. (ed.) Emerging human and techno-human business management dynamics in a globalized environment Nova Science.
You are not alone: Exploring experiences and available support structures for mothers with children with Autism
Van Tonder, A. and Lamba, N. 2020. You are not alone: Exploring experiences and available support structures for mothers with children with Autism. Fifth Emerging Research Paradigms in Business and Social Sciences (ERPBSS) conference. Middlesex University Dubai
How can education shape the future happiness and well-being of students?
Lamba, N. 2019. How can education shape the future happiness and well-being of students? Edarabia.
The ART of performance: engaging young people with assisted reproductive technologies
Jadva, V., Vilsbol, T., Ayed, N., Imrie, S., Jones, C., Lamba, N., McConnachie, A., Vasques, S., Golombok, S. and Zadeh, S. 2019. The ART of performance: engaging young people with assisted reproductive technologies. International Journal of Science Education. 9 (2), pp. 128-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/21548455.2019.1576239
Psychological well-being, maternal-foetal bonding and experiences of Indian surrogates
Lamba, N. 2017. Psychological well-being, maternal-foetal bonding and experiences of Indian surrogates. PhD thesis University of Cambridge Department of Psychology
India in transition: why ban commercial surrogacy? [News article]
Lamba, N. 2018. India in transition: why ban commercial surrogacy? [News article]. The Hindu Business Line.
Indian surrogates: their psychological well-being and experiences in cross cultural perspectives on surrogacy and gamete donations
Lamba, N. and Jadva, V. 2018. Indian surrogates: their psychological well-being and experiences in cross cultural perspectives on surrogacy and gamete donations. in: Cross-Cultural Comparisons on Surrogacy and Egg Donation Palgrave Macmillan.
The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates
Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K. and Golombok, S. 2018. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates. Human Reproduction. 33 (4), pp. 646-653. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dey048
Politics of the female body, reproductive rights and its health consequences amongst South Asian women: psychological impact of commercial surrogacy amongSouth Asian women
Lamba, N. 2017. Politics of the female body, reproductive rights and its health consequences amongst South Asian women: psychological impact of commercial surrogacy amongSouth Asian women. British Association for South Asian Studies: BASAS Conference 2017. Nottingham, U.K. 19 - 21 Apr 2017
The psychological well-being and maternal-fetal bonding of surrogates
Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kaushal, K. and Golombok, S. 2017. The psychological well-being and maternal-fetal bonding of surrogates. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, Texas 06 - 08 Apr 2017
Policy perspective on Indian surrogacy: Past, present and future
Lamba, N. 2017. Policy perspective on Indian surrogacy: Past, present and future. 6th National Bio-Ethics Conference. Pune, India Jan 2017
New surrogacy policy: great leap backwards
Lamba, N. 2016. New surrogacy policy: great leap backwards. Open Magazine.
Rethinking commercial vs. altruistic surrogacy in India
Lamba, N. 2016. Rethinking commercial vs. altruistic surrogacy in India. India in Transition.
Motivations, experiences and psychological well-being of Indian surrogates
Lamba, N. 2015. Motivations, experiences and psychological well-being of Indian surrogates. Product, Production, Productivity: A Women's Studies Symposium. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 10 - 12 Dec 2015
On wealth and the diversity of friendships: high social class people around the world have fewer international friends
Yearwood, M., Cuddy, A., Lamba, N., Wu, Y., Van der Lowe, I., Piff, P., Gronin, C., Fleming, P., Simon-Thomas, E., Keltner, D. and Spectre, A. 2015. On wealth and the diversity of friendships: high social class people around the world have fewer international friends. Personality and Individual Differences. 87, pp. 224-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.040
Indian egg donors’ characteristics, motivations and feelings towards the recipient and resultant child
Jadva, V., Lamba, N., Kadam, K. and Golombok, S. 2015. Indian egg donors’ characteristics, motivations and feelings towards the recipient and resultant child. Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online. 1 (2), pp. 98-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbms.2016.04.003
Selling womb for some ‘baby cash’ [Blog post]
Lamba, N. 2013. Selling womb for some ‘baby cash’ [Blog post]. Oxford India Policy Blog.
Sequence learning under uncertainty in children: self-reflection vs. self-assertion
Lange-Küttner, C., Averbeck, B., Hirsch, S., Wießner, I. and Lamba, N. 2012. Sequence learning under uncertainty in children: self-reflection vs. self-assertion. Frontiers in Psychology. 3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00127
A self-relevance analysis of safer-sex cognition
Lamba, N., Reich, W., Vial, A. and Young, J. 2012. A self-relevance analysis of safer-sex cognition. 83rd annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association. Pittsburgh USA 01 - 04 Mar 2012