Is baseline aerobic fitness associated with illness and attrition rate in military training?

Article


Dimitriou, L., Lockey, J. and Castell, L. 2017. Is baseline aerobic fitness associated with illness and attrition rate in military training? Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 163 (1), pp. 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2015-000608
TypeArticle
TitleIs baseline aerobic fitness associated with illness and attrition rate in military training?
AuthorsDimitriou, L., Lockey, J. and Castell, L.
Abstract

Background Respiratory illnesses are a leading cause of morbidity and medical discharge in the military. This study aimed to investigate the effects of baseline aerobic fitness on haematological, salivary and mood variables, and simultaneously, in a novel approach, to identify factors precipitating illness and attrition rate in recruits during military training.
Methods Thirty-five healthy male recruits from an Army Training Regiment undertaking 12 weeks of training were prospectively investigated. Their 2.4 km run time (RT) was used as a surrogate of baseline aerobic fitness. Saliva and venous blood samples were analysed for secretory IgA, full blood counts and cell cytokine production (interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-8), respectively. Each recruit completed questionnaires on mood profile, and gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS).
Results Significant salivary and haematological perturbations were observed and coincided with increased duration of URTS/week and mood disturbance over this military training period. From Start to End: leucocyte count decreased by 28% ( p<0.001); neutrophil percentage (%) decreased by 13% (p<0.01); lymphocyte % increased by 17% (p<0.05); the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio decreased by 22% (p<0.01); eosinophil% increased by 71% (p<0.01). From Start to Mid to End: monocyte% increased by 68% at Mid (p<0.01) but only by 30% at End (p<0.01); IL-6 increased by 39% at Mid (p<0.01) and a further 61% by End. The 2.4 km RT was significantly associated with URTS duration (p<0.01). In addition, a 1-min increase in 2.4 km RT increased a recruit’s risk 9.8-fold of developing URTS lasting, on average, 3.36 days/week. In recruits ranked with high-URTS duration their RT was 48 s slower (p<0.01) than those with low-URTS, and their attrition rate reached 45%.
Conclusions The least fit recruits may have found training more physically demanding as reflected in the higher URTS duration, which may have led to a high attrition rate from the Army. It is worth considering that baseline aerobic fitness might be an important factor in illness development and attrition rate in recruits during this type of military training.

Research GroupPhysiology at the London Sport Institute
LanguageEnglish
PublisherBMJ Publishing Group
JournalJournal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
ISSN0035-8665
Electronic2052-0468
Publication dates
Online29 Feb 2016
Print27 Jan 2017
Publication process dates
Deposited27 Apr 2016
Accepted21 Jan 2016
Output statusPublished
Accepted author manuscript
Copyright Statement

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by the BMJ Publishing Group in the Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps on 27/01/2017, the final publication is available online: http://doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2015-000608
Copyright information: Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

Additional information

Published Online First 29 February 2016
As of 2020 Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps has become BMJ Military Health

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2015-000608
Permalink -

https://repository.mdx.ac.uk/item/86524

  • 32
    total views
  • 6
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

A combination of cherry juice and cold water immersion does not enhance marathon recovery compared to either treatment in isolation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Difranco, I., Cockburn, E., Dimitriou, L., Paice, K., Sinclair, S., Faki, T., Hills, F., Gondek, M., Wood, A. and Wilson, L. 2022. A combination of cherry juice and cold water immersion does not enhance marathon recovery compared to either treatment in isolation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2022.957950
Cold water immersion offers no functional or perceptual benefit compared to a sham intervention during a resistance training program
Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M., Van Wyk, A., Turek, V., Rivkin, T., Villiere, A., Jarvis, P., Miller, S., Turner, A. and Cockburn, E. 2021. Cold water immersion offers no functional or perceptual benefit compared to a sham intervention during a resistance training program. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 35 (10), pp. 2720-2727. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000004097
A pilot study to determine whether repeated post-exercise cryotherapy exposure augments physiological and perceptual responses to cold
Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M., Van Wyk, A., Turek, V., Rivkin, T., Villiere, A., Jarvis, P., Miller, S., Turner, A. and Cockburn, E. 2020. A pilot study to determine whether repeated post-exercise cryotherapy exposure augments physiological and perceptual responses to cold. 25th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Virtual (due to Covid-19), initial venue Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain 28 - 30 Oct 2020
Caffeine increases strength and power performance in resistance‐trained females during early follicular phase
Norum, M., Risvang, L., Bjørnsen, T., Dimitriou, L., Rønning, P., Bjørgen, M. and Raastad, T. 2020. Caffeine increases strength and power performance in resistance‐trained females during early follicular phase. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 30 (11), pp. 2116-2129. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13776
The effect of carbohydrate dose and timing on timed effort and time to exhaustion within a simulated cycle race in male professional cyclists
Girling, W., Pujdak, M., Dimitriou, L., Van Wyk, A., Vidal, M., Peterca, J., Curtis, C. and Paice, K. 2019. The effect of carbohydrate dose and timing on timed effort and time to exhaustion within a simulated cycle race in male professional cyclists. British Association of Sport Exercise Sciences: BASES Conference 2019. Leicester, UK 19 - 20 Nov 2019 Taylor and Francis. pp. 25-26 https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1671688
Influence of tart cherry juice on airway biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress following a 42.2km trail run
Dimitriou, L., Yagnik, D., Wood, A., Sinclair, S., Paice, K., Wilson, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M., Kwan Xue Bin, K., Howatson, G. and Cockburn, E. 2018. Influence of tart cherry juice on airway biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress following a 42.2km trail run. 23rd annual congress of the European College of Sport Science. Dublin, Ireland 04 - 07 Jul 2018
A moderate caffeine dose increases strength performance in resistance-trained females
Risvang, L., Norum, M., Bjørnsen, T., Dimitriou, L., Rønning, P., Bjørgen, M., Stadheim, H. and Raastad, T. 2019. A moderate caffeine dose increases strength performance in resistance-trained females. 24th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science. Prague, Czech Republic 03 - 06 Jul 2019
Effects of energy availability and dietary macronutrients on bone mineral density in male and female vocational ballet dancers
Juncal, R., Myriam, L., Diaz-Naranjo, M. and Dimitriou, L. 2019. Effects of energy availability and dietary macronutrients on bone mineral density in male and female vocational ballet dancers. 29th International Association for Dance Medicine and Science (IADMS). Montreal, Quebec, Canada 24 - 27 Oct 2019
The role of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the assessment of athletes reporting exertional dyspnoea
Allen, H., Hull, J., Backhouse, S., Dickinson, J., De Carné, T., Dimitriou, L. and Price, O. 2019. The role of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the assessment of athletes reporting exertional dyspnoea. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Congress. Lisbon, Portugal 01 - 05 Jun 2019 pp. 202 https://doi.org/10.1111/all.13959
The allergy questionnaire for athletes provides value in ruling‐out exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction [Letter to the Editor]
Allen, H., Hull, J., Backhouse, S., De Carné, T., Dimitriou, L. and Price, O. 2019. The allergy questionnaire for athletes provides value in ruling‐out exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction [Letter to the Editor]. Allergy. 74 (9), pp. 1794-1796. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.13778
The influence of repeated cold water immersion on adaptations to strength and power training
Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Gondek, M., Hills, F. and Cockburn, E. 2018. The influence of repeated cold water immersion on adaptations to strength and power training. 23rd Annual Congress of the ECSS 2018. Dublin, UK 04 - 07 Jul 2018 European College of Sport Science. pp. 94
A retrospective investigation on age and gender differences of injuries in DanceSport
Premelč, J., Vučković, G., James, N. and Dimitriou, L. 2019. A retrospective investigation on age and gender differences of injuries in DanceSport. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (21). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214164
Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter?
Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M. and Cockburn, E. 2019. Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter? European Journal of Applied Physiology. 119 (1), pp. 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4008-7
The effect of plasma volume on changes in biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation, oxidative stress and leukocyte differential following a 42.2 km trail run, and the efficacy of recovery interventions
Cockburn, E., Hills, F., Wilson, L., Paice, K., Wood, A. and Dimitriou, L. 2017. The effect of plasma volume on changes in biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation, oxidative stress and leukocyte differential following a 42.2 km trail run, and the efficacy of recovery interventions. BASES Conference 2017. Nottingham, UK 28 - 29 Nov 2017 Taylor and Francis. pp. s26 https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1378421
The influence of cold water immersion on markers of recovery following resistance exercise
Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M. and Cockburn, E. 2017. The influence of cold water immersion on markers of recovery following resistance exercise. BASES Conference 2017. Nottingham, UK 28 - 29 Nov 2017 Taylor and Francis. pp. s66 https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1378421
Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers
Amorim, T., Koutedakis, Y., Nevill, A., Wyon, M., Maia, J., Machado, J., Marques, F., Metsios, G., Flouris, A., Adubeiro, N., Nogueira, L. and Dimitriou, L. 2017. Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers. Osteoporosis International. 28 (10), pp. 2903-2912. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4130-0
Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control
Wilson, L., Cockburn, E., Paice, K., Sinclair, S., Faki, T., Hills, F., Gondek, M., Wood, A. and Dimitriou, L. 2018. Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 118 (1), pp. 153-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3757-z
Physiological demands of sabre competitions in elite fencers
Turner, A., Dimitriou, L., Marshall, G., Russell, M., Bannock, L. and Bishop, C. 2018. Physiological demands of sabre competitions in elite fencers. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning. 26 (1).
Competition intensity and fatigue in elite fencing
Turner, A., Kilduff, L., Mrashall, G., Phillips, J., Noto, A., Buttigeig, C., Gondek, M., Hills, F. and Dimitriou, L. 2017. Competition intensity and fatigue in elite fencing. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31 (11), pp. 3128-3136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001758
Influence of cold water immersion and cherry juice on recovery following a 42.2km trail run
Paice, K., Dimitriou, L., Wilson, L., Hills, F., Sinclair, S., Gondek, M., Kwan, X. and Wood, A. 2017. Influence of cold water immersion and cherry juice on recovery following a 42.2km trail run. BASES Conference 2017. Nottingham, UK 28 - 29 Nov 2017 Taylor and Francis. pp. s92 https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1378421
Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing
Turner, A., Marshall, G., Philips, J., Noto, A., Buttigieg, C., Chavda, S., Downing, W., Atlay, N., Dimitriou, L. and Kilduff, L. 2016. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 30 (11), pp. 3134-3139. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001402
Analysis of dance postures in latin-american dances using annotation and Sagit tracking
Zaletel, P., Vučković, G., Dimitriou, L., James, N., Rebula, A. and Zagorc, M. 2011. Analysis of dance postures in latin-american dances using annotation and Sagit tracking. 6th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology. Opatija, Croatia 08 - 11 Sep 2011 pp. 577
The effects of physical training and competition on selected haematological, salivary and psychological markers of immune and health status
Dimitriou, L. 2007. The effects of physical training and competition on selected haematological, salivary and psychological markers of immune and health status. PhD thesis Brunel University Sports Sciences
Bone mineral density and body composition in female professional ballet dancers: 480 Board# 71 2: 00 PM-3: 30 PM
Cooke, K., Dimitriou, L., Smith, N. and McCormack, M. 2005. Bone mineral density and body composition in female professional ballet dancers: 480 Board# 71 2: 00 PM-3: 30 PM. ACSM. LWW.
Bone mineral density and aspects of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: 1562: Board# 218 June 2 11: 00 AM-12: 30 PM
Pollock, N., Grogan, C., Perry, M., Pedlar, C., Cooke, K., Morrissey, D. and Dimitriou, L. 2010. Bone mineral density and aspects of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: 1562: Board# 218 June 2 11: 00 AM-12: 30 PM. ACSM. LWW.
Low radial BMD is associated with reduced femoral cross sectional area in female ballet dancers
Cooke, K., Dimitriou, L. and McCormack, M. 2007. Low radial BMD is associated with reduced femoral cross sectional area in female ballet dancers. acsm. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000273156.09179.ed
Body composition and injuries in professional ballet dancers
Naalchigar, C., McCormack, M., Pelly, J., Wyon, M. and Dimitriou, L. 2013. Body composition and injuries in professional ballet dancers. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science 2013. pp. 97-98
Regional body composition & muscular strength in female endurance athletes with low and normal radius bone mineral density: preliminary findings
Cooke, K., Dimitriou, L., Smith, N., Lee, S. and Pedlar, C. 2005. Regional body composition & muscular strength in female endurance athletes with low and normal radius bone mineral density: preliminary findings. ECSS.
Applying elite research to the general population
Sharp, N., Dimitriou, L. and Doherty, M. 2003. Applying elite research to the general population. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 37 (4), p. 372. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.4.372-a
Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study
Pollock, N., Grogan, C., Perry, M., Pedlar, C., Cooke, K., Morrissey, D. and Dimitriou, L. 2010. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 20 (5), pp. 418-426.
Strength and conditioning for fencing
Turner, A., Miller, S., Stewart, P., Cree, J., Ingram, R., Dimitriou, L., Moody, J. and Kilduff, L. 2013. Strength and conditioning for fencing. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 35 (1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e31826e7283
Menstrual irregularity, bone mineral density and rib injuries in current and retired female lightweight rowers: 1837: Board# 1 May 29 2: 00 PM-3: 30 PM
Reid, A., Lloyd-Smith, R. and Dimitriou, L. 2008. Menstrual irregularity, bone mineral density and rib injuries in current and retired female lightweight rowers: 1837: Board# 1 May 29 2: 00 PM-3: 30 PM. acsm. LWW.
Team everest: the immune response to high altitude: 1693: Board# 43 May 27 3: 30 PM-5: 00 PM
Dimitriou, L., Chong, C., Dhunnokchand, R., Ranney, J., Jehanli, A., Speedy, T. and Ranney, M. 2009. Team everest: the immune response to high altitude: 1693: Board# 43 May 27 3: 30 PM-5: 00 PM. ACSM. LWW.
Low radial BMD is associated with reduced femoral cross sectional area in female ballet dancers: 797: June 1 8: 30 AM-8: 45 AM
Cooke, K., Dimitriou, L. and McCormack, M. 2007. Low radial BMD is associated with reduced femoral cross sectional area in female ballet dancers: 797: June 1 8: 30 AM-8: 45 AM. ACsm. LWW.
Determinants of Olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training
Turner, A., James, N., Dimitriou, L., Greenhalgh, A., Moody, J., Fulcher, D., Mias, E. and Kilduff, L. 2014. Determinants of Olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28 (10), pp. 3001-3011. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000478
A time-motion analysis of turns performed by highly ranked Viennese waltz dancers
Prosen, J., James, N., Dimitriou, L., Perš, J. and Vučković, G. 2013. A time-motion analysis of turns performed by highly ranked Viennese waltz dancers. Journal of Human Kinetics. 37 (1). https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2013-0025
Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running—a pilot investigation
Dimitriou, L., Hill, J., Jehnali, A., Dunbar, J., Brouner, J., McHugh, M. and Howatson, G. 2015. Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running—a pilot investigation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 12 (1), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0085-8
Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers
Dimitriou, L., Weiler, R., Lloyd-Smith, R., Turner, A., Heath, L., James, N. and Reid, A. 2014. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers. BMJ Open. 4 (2), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004369
Circadian effects on the acute responses of salivary cortisol and IgA in well trained swimmers
Dimitriou, L., Sharp, N. and Doherty, M. 2002. Circadian effects on the acute responses of salivary cortisol and IgA in well trained swimmers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 36 (4), pp. 260-264. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.36.4.260
Comparison of lung volume in Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls using allometric scaling
Doherty, M. and Dimitriou, L. 1997. Comparison of lung volume in Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls using allometric scaling. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (4), pp. 337-341. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.31.4.337