Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter?

Article


Wilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M. and Cockburn, E. 2019. Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter? European Journal of Applied Physiology. 119 (1), pp. 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4008-7
TypeArticle
TitleWhole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter?
AuthorsWilson, L., Dimitriou, L., Hills, F., Gondek, M. and Cockburn, E.
Abstract

PURPOSE: The use of cryotherapy as a recovery intervention is prevalent amongst athletes. Performance of high volume, heavy load resistance exercise is known to result in disturbances of muscle function, perceptual responses and blood borne parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of cold water immersion (CWI), whole body cryotherapy (WBC) or a placebo (PL) intervention on markers of recovery following an acute resistance training session.
METHODS: 24 resistance trained males were matched into a CWI (10 min at 10 °C), WBC (3- and 4 min at - 85 °C) or PL group before completing a lower body resistance training session. Perceptions of soreness and training stress, markers of muscle function, inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins were assessed before, and up to 72 h post exercise.
RESULTS: The training session resulted in increased soreness, disturbances of muscle function, and increased inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins. Although WBC attenuated soreness at 24 h, and positively influenced peak force at 48 h compared to CWI and PL, many of the remaining outcomes were trivial, unclear or favoured the PL condition. With the exception of CRP at 24 h, neither cryotherapy intervention attenuated the inflammatory response compared to PL.
CONCLUSION: There was some evidence to suggest that WBC is more effective than CWI at attenuating select perceptual and functional responses following resistance training. However, neither cryotherapy intervention was more effective than the placebo treatment at accelerating recovery. The implications of these findings should be carefully considered by individuals employing cryotherapy as a recovery strategy following heavy load resistance training.

KeywordsMuscle damage; Muscle function; Inflammation ; Resistance training
LanguageEnglish
PublisherSpringer
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
ISSN1439-6319
Electronic1439-6327
Publication dates
Online11 Oct 2018
Print30 Jan 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited05 Nov 2018
Accepted04 Oct 2018
Output statusPublished
Accepted author manuscript
Copyright Statement

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in European Journal of Applied Physiology. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4008-7

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4008-7
PubMed ID30310979
Web of Science identifierWOS:000456424900012
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Dimitriou, L., Hill, J., Jehnali, A., Dunbar, J., Brouner, J., McHugh, M. and Howatson, G. 2015. Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running—a pilot investigation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 12 (1), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0085-8
Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers
Dimitriou, L., Weiler, R., Lloyd-Smith, R., Turner, A., Heath, L., James, N. and Reid, A. 2014. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers. BMJ Open. 4 (2), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004369
Circadian effects on the acute responses of salivary cortisol and IgA in well trained swimmers
Dimitriou, L., Sharp, N. and Doherty, M. 2002. Circadian effects on the acute responses of salivary cortisol and IgA in well trained swimmers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 36 (4), pp. 260-264. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.36.4.260
Comparison of lung volume in Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls using allometric scaling
Doherty, M. and Dimitriou, L. 1997. Comparison of lung volume in Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls using allometric scaling. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (4), pp. 337-341. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.31.4.337
Placental syndecan-1 and sulphated glycosaminoglycans are decreased in preeclampsia
Heyer-Chauhan, N., Ovbude, I., Hills, A., Sullivan, M. and Hills, F. 2013. Placental syndecan-1 and sulphated glycosaminoglycans are decreased in preeclampsia. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2013-0097
IGFBP-1 in the placenta, membranes and fetal circulation: levels at term and preterm delivery
Hills, F., Gunn, L., Hardiman, P., Thanaratnam, S. and Chard, T. 1996. IGFBP-1 in the placenta, membranes and fetal circulation: levels at term and preterm delivery. Early Human Development. 44 (1), pp. 71-76.
Differential proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in pregnancy
Hills, F., Iles, R. and Sullivan, M. 2013. Differential proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 41 (3), pp. 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2012-0086
Insulin-like growth factor-II and heparin are anti-apoptotic survival factors in human villous cytotrophoblast
Hills, F., Mehmet, H. and Sullivan, M. 2012. Insulin-like growth factor-II and heparin are anti-apoptotic survival factors in human villous cytotrophoblast. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. 163 (1), pp. 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.03.013
Superovulation, IGFBP-1 and birth weight.
Johnson, M., Irvine, R., Hills, F., Bolton, V., Abbas, A., Brooks, A., Allman, A., Chard, T. and Nicolaides, K. 1995. Superovulation, IGFBP-1 and birth weight. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology. 59 (2), pp. 193-195.
The effects of labor on maternal and fetal levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1
Hills, F., Crawford, R., Harding, S., Farkas, F. and Chard, T. 1994. The effects of labor on maternal and fetal levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 171 (5), pp. 1292-1295.
Insulin-related growth factor binding protein-1 levels in ovum donation pregnancies.
Brooks, A., Johnson, M., Hills, F., Chard, T., Irvine, R. and Abdalla, H. 1995. Insulin-related growth factor binding protein-1 levels in ovum donation pregnancies. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology. 59 (1), pp. 91-94.
Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in fetal distress.
Crawford, R., Hills, F., Farkas, A. and Chard, T. 1995. Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in fetal distress. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 102 (7), pp. 538-540.
Lack of evidence for a circadian rhythm of IGFBP-1 in the mother and fetus during labour.
Harding, S., Mensah, A., Hills, F., Howell, R. and Chard, T. 1995. Lack of evidence for a circadian rhythm of IGFBP-1 in the mother and fetus during labour. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 102 (11), pp. 891-893.
Raised circulating levels of interleukin-6 in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device.
Wolley, J., Saleem, S., Hills, F., Salem, H., El-Nashar, E. and Chard, T. 1996. Raised circulating levels of interleukin-6 in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 42 (4), pp. 241-243.
Circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 throughout pregnancy: relation to birthweight and maternal weight.
Hills, F., English, J. and Chard, T. 1996. Circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 throughout pregnancy: relation to birthweight and maternal weight. Journal of Endocrinology. 148 (2), pp. 303-309. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1480303
Mechanism of action of the intrauterine contraceptive device: evidence for a specific biochemical deficiency in the endometrium.
Seleem, S., Hills, F., Salem, H., El-Nashar, E. and Chard, T. 1996. Mechanism of action of the intrauterine contraceptive device: evidence for a specific biochemical deficiency in the endometrium. Human Reproduction. 11 (6), pp. 1220-1222.
Antenatal dexamethasone therapy does not affect circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1.
Ogueh, O., Hills, F., Chard, T. and Johnson, M. 1998. Antenatal dexamethasone therapy does not affect circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Human Reproduction. 13 (6), pp. 1714-1716. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/13.6.1714
Effects of co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, amoxycillin, tetracycline and chloroquine on sperm function in vitro
Hargreaves, C., Rogers, S., Hills, F., Rahman, F., Howell, R. and Homa, S. 1998. Effects of co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, amoxycillin, tetracycline and chloroquine on sperm function in vitro. Human Reproduction. 13 (7), pp. 1878-1886.
Reciprocal imprinting of human GRB10 in placental trophoblast and brain: evolutionary conservation of reversed allelic expression
Monk, D., Arnaud, P., Frost, J., Hills, F., Stanier, P., Feil, R. and Moore, G. 2009. Reciprocal imprinting of human GRB10 in placental trophoblast and brain: evolutionary conservation of reversed allelic expression. Human Molecular Genetics. 18 (16), pp. 3066-3074. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp248
Heparin prevents programmed cell death in human trophoblast
Hills, F., Abrahams, V., Gonzalez-Timon, B., Francis, J., Cloke, B., Hinkson, L., Rai, R., Regan, L., Mor, G., Sullivan, M., Lam, E. and Brosens, J. 2006. Heparin prevents programmed cell death in human trophoblast. Molecular Human Reproduction. 12 (4), pp. 237-242.
A longitudinal study of maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentrations during normal pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia
Anim-Nyame, N., Hills, F., Soorana, S., Steer, P. and Johnson, M. 2000. A longitudinal study of maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentrations during normal pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Human Reproduction. 15 (10), pp. 2215-2219. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/15.10.2215
Interactions between progesterone receptor isoforms in myometrial cells in human labour
Pieber, D., Allport, V., Hills, F., Johnson, M. and Bennett, P. 2001. Interactions between progesterone receptor isoforms in myometrial cells in human labour. Molecular Human Reproduction. 7 (9), pp. 875-879. https://doi.org/10.1093/molehr/7.9.875
Regulated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5, and its enhancement of PRL expression in human endometrial stromal cells in vitro
Mak, I., Brosens, J., Christian, M., Hills, F., Chamley, L., Regan, L. and White, J. 2002. Regulated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5, and its enhancement of PRL expression in human endometrial stromal cells in vitro. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 87 (6), pp. 2581-2588. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.87.6.2581
Progesterone represses interleukin-8 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human lower segment fibroblast cells and amnion epithelial cells
Loudon, J., Elliott, C., Hills, F. and Bennett, P. 2003. Progesterone represses interleukin-8 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human lower segment fibroblast cells and amnion epithelial cells. Biology of Reproduction. 69 (1), pp. 331-337.
The relationship between insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 is modified by pre-eclampsia.
Anim-Nyame, N., Hills, F., Soorana, S., Steer, P. and Johnson, M. 2003. The relationship between insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 is modified by pre-eclampsia. Gynecological endocrinology.. 17 (6), pp. 471-476. https://doi.org/10.1080/09513590312331290408
The insulin-like growth factor system in mammalian pregnancy: a workshop report
Carter, A., Hills, F., O'Gorman, D., Robets, C., Soorana, S., Watson, C. and Westwood, M. 2004. The insulin-like growth factor system in mammalian pregnancy: a workshop report. Placenta. 25 (Supple), pp. S53-S56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2004.01.019
Imprinting of IGF2 P0 transcript and novel alternatively spliced INS-IGF2 isoforms show differences between mouse and human
Monk, D., Sanches, R., Arnaud, P., Apostolidou, S., Hills, F., Abu-Amero, S., Murrell, A., Friess, H., Reik, W. and Stanier, P. 2006. Imprinting of IGF2 P0 transcript and novel alternatively spliced INS-IGF2 isoforms show differences between mouse and human. Human Molecular Genetics. 15 (8), pp. 1259-1269. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddl041
STOX1 is not imprinted and is not likely to be involved in preeclampsia.
Hills, F., Iglesias-Platas, I., Jebbink, J. and Monk, D. 2007. STOX1 is not imprinted and is not likely to be involved in preeclampsia. Nature Genetics. 39 (3), pp. 279-280. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0307-279
Limited evolutionary conservation of imprinting in the human placenta
Hills, F., Apostolidou, S., Arnaud, P. and Monk, D. 2006. Limited evolutionary conservation of imprinting in the human placenta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (17), pp. 6623-6628. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0511031103
Regulation of human villous trophoblast by insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1
Hills, F., Chard, T., Elder, M. and Sullivan, M. 2004. Regulation of human villous trophoblast by insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Journal of Endocrinology. 183 (3), pp. 487-496. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.05867
Polyclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha Fab used as an ancillary treatment for severe malaria.
Looareesuwan, S., Sjorstrom, L., Krudsood, S., Wilairatana, P., Porter, R., Hills, F. and Warrell, D. 1999. Polyclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha Fab used as an ancillary treatment for severe malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 61 (1), pp. 26-33. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1999.61.26