A systematic review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer care in spinal cord injuries

Conference item


Liu, L., Moody, J., Dyson, S., Traynor, M. and Gall, A. 2014. A systematic review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer care in spinal cord injuries. The 53rd ISCoS Annual Scientific Meeting. Maastricht, The Netherlands 02 - 04 Sep 2014
TitleA systematic review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer care in spinal cord injuries
AuthorsLiu, L., Moody, J., Dyson, S., Traynor, M. and Gall, A.
Abstract

Introduction and Aim
Pressure ulcer (PU) is one of the most common secondary complications following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer the benefit to pressure ulcer care in SCI. However, to date, the clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. This systematic review was therefore conducted to identify the updated evidence, and to pinpoint the scope of the feasibility of future studies implementing electrical stimulation for PU management in SCI. The overall aim of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on neuromuscular ES for the prevention and treatment of PU in spinal cord injuries.
Material and Method
Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to 2013. A Free-text and keyword/MESH terms search of five databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.), in addition to manual searches of other resources and retrieved articles was undertaken on 18th July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control studies and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of neuromuscular ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring the effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments by two independent reviewers.
Results
Twenty-seven studies were included in this review, 9/27 studies were RCTs. Six of RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all therapeutic studies. The evidence of long-term benefit of ES for pressure ulcer prevention is uncertain. Five types of ES modalities (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular electrical stimulation implant and anal probe) were identified in this review.
Conclusion
The great variability in the parameters and locations of ES application and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard therapeutic approach for PU therapy or prevention. The methodological quality of the studies was generally poor, in particular for those prevention studies. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters and conduct more rigorous trials.

ConferenceThe 53rd ISCoS Annual Scientific Meeting
Publication process dates
Deposited08 May 2014
Submitted02 Sep 2014
Output statusPublished
Web address (URL)http://www.iscos.org.uk/meetings/2014-annual-scientific-meeting
LanguageEnglish
Permalink -

https://repository.mdx.ac.uk/item/84v48

  • 43
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Exploring perspectives and experiences of pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers: a generic qualitative study
Liu, L. 2024. Exploring perspectives and experiences of pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers: a generic qualitative study. Journal of Wound Care.
The knowledge and attitudes regarding pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers in the UK: a cross-sectional study
Liu, L., Kelly, J., Di Cesare, M., Allan, H. and Traynor, M. 2022. The knowledge and attitudes regarding pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers in the UK: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Tissue Viability. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2022.11.004
A critical race analysis of structural and institutional racism: rethinking overseas registered nurses' recruitment to and working conditions in the United Kingdom
Ugiagbe, M., Liu, L., Markowski, M. and Allan, H. 2023. A critical race analysis of structural and institutional racism: rethinking overseas registered nurses' recruitment to and working conditions in the United Kingdom. Nursing Inquiry. 30 (1). https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12512
The knowledge and attitudes regarding pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers in the UK: a cross-sectional study
Liu, L., Kelly, J., Di Cesare, M., Allan, H. and Traynor, M. 2022. The knowledge and attitudes regarding pressure ulcer prevention among healthcare support workers in the UK: a cross-sectional study. Society of Tissue Viability 2022 Conference: Solving skin and wound challenges together. Glasgow, UK 18 - 19 May 2022
Does Transverse Friction Massage add benefit to loading exercises for achilles tendinopathy? A pilot and feasibility study
Altinpulluk, E., Smith, G., Price, J. and Liu, L. 2020. Does Transverse Friction Massage add benefit to loading exercises for achilles tendinopathy? A pilot and feasibility study. Physiotherapy UK. Virtual 13 - 14 Nov 2020
A systematic review of interventions used to enhance implementation of and compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist in adult surgery
Liu, L. and Mehigan, S. 2021. A systematic review of interventions used to enhance implementation of and compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist in adult surgery. AORN Journal. 114 (2), pp. 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1002/aorn.13469
Exploring factors having an impact on attitudes and motivations towards volunteering in the undergraduate nursing student population − A comparative study of the UK and Ghana
Dyson, S., Korsah, K., Liu, L., O'Driscoll, M. and van den Akker, O. 2021. Exploring factors having an impact on attitudes and motivations towards volunteering in the undergraduate nursing student population − A comparative study of the UK and Ghana. Nurse Education in Practice. 53, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103050
Development and preliminary validation of a tool measuring concordance and belief about performing pressure-relieving activities for pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury
Liu, L., Chapman, S., Deegan, R., Knight, S., Traynor, M., Allan, H. and Gall, A. 2021. Development and preliminary validation of a tool measuring concordance and belief about performing pressure-relieving activities for pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury. Journal of Tissue Viability. 30 (2), pp. 244-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2020.05.002
Scoping the role of the nurse consultant
Dyson, S., Michael, T., Liu, L., Oznur, K. and Mehta, N. 2014. Scoping the role of the nurse consultant. London, UK Middlesex University, School of Health and Education.
Educational text messaging for pressure ulcer prevention in people living with spinal cord injury who are newly discharged from hospital: A pilot study protocol
Liu, L., Deegan, R., Knight, S., Chapman, S., Traynor, M., Allan, H. and Gall, A. 2018. Educational text messaging for pressure ulcer prevention in people living with spinal cord injury who are newly discharged from hospital: A pilot study protocol. EPUAP 2018: 20th Annual Meeting of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP). Rome, Italy 12 - 14 Sep 2018
The extent, variability and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education
O'Driscoll, M., Dyson, S., Liu, L., van den Akker, O. and Mehta, N. 2017. The extent, variability and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education. 11th Annual International Conference on Sociology. Athens, Greece 01 - 04 May 2017
BREAST-Q measurement of the patient perspective in oncoplastic breast surgery: a systematic review
Liu, L., Branford, O. and Mehigan, S. 2018. BREAST-Q measurement of the patient perspective in oncoplastic breast surgery: a systematic review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open. 6 (8), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000001904
The Development and assessment of reliability and validity of a questionnaire to measure concordance to ‘pressure relief’ regimen for pressure injury prevention in seated spinal cord injury
Liu, L., Chapman, S., Deegan, R. and Gall, A. 2018. The Development and assessment of reliability and validity of a questionnaire to measure concordance to ‘pressure relief’ regimen for pressure injury prevention in seated spinal cord injury. 28th Conference of European Wound Management Association (EWMA 2018). Krakow, Poland 09 - 11 May 2018
Concordance to ‘pressure relief’ regimen for pressure injury prevention in seated spinal cord injury -- A new measurement tool
Liu, L., Deegan, R., Chapman, S., Allan, H., Traynor, M., Dyson, S., Knight, S. and Gall, A. 2018. Concordance to ‘pressure relief’ regimen for pressure injury prevention in seated spinal cord injury -- A new measurement tool. Tissue Viability Society 2018 – The Conference. Newcastle, UK 25 - 26 Apr 2018
Compassion in Practice – evaluating the awareness, involvement and perceived impact of a national nursing and midwifery strategy amongst health care professionals in NHS Trusts in England
O'Driscoll, M., Allan, H., Liu, L., Corbett, K. and Serrant, L. 2018. Compassion in Practice – evaluating the awareness, involvement and perceived impact of a national nursing and midwifery strategy amongst health care professionals in NHS Trusts in England. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 27 (5-6), pp. e1097-e1109. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14176
Blood perfusion changes during sacral nerve root stimulation versus surface gluteus electrical stimulation on in seated spinal cord injury
Liu, L. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2019. Blood perfusion changes during sacral nerve root stimulation versus surface gluteus electrical stimulation on in seated spinal cord injury. Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA. 31 (1), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2017.1340360
The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: implications for pedagogy in nurse education
Dyson, S., Liu, L., van den Akker, O. and O'Driscoll, M. 2017. The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: implications for pedagogy in nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice. 23, pp. 15-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2017.01.004
Adherence to ‘pressure-relief’ regimen for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention in spinal cord injury (SCI)
Liu, L., Chapman, S., Deegan, R., Allan, H., Traynor, M. and Gall, A. 2016. Adherence to ‘pressure-relief’ regimen for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention in spinal cord injury (SCI). The 55th ISCoS Annual Scientific Meeting. Vienna, Austria 14 - 16 Sep 2016
A quantitative, pooled analysis and systematic review of controlled trials on the impact of electrical stimulation settings and placement on pressure ulcer healing rates in persons with spinal cord injuries
Liu, L., Moody, J. and Gall, A. 2016. A quantitative, pooled analysis and systematic review of controlled trials on the impact of electrical stimulation settings and placement on pressure ulcer healing rates in persons with spinal cord injuries. Ostomy Wound Management. 62 (7), pp. 16-34.
The effects of surgical hand scrubbing protocols on skin integrity and surgical site infection rates: a systematic review
Liu, L. and Mehigan, S. 2016. The effects of surgical hand scrubbing protocols on skin integrity and surgical site infection rates: a systematic review. AORN Journal. 103 (5), pp. 468-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2016.03.003
What are the evidence about electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in Spinal Cord Injury? – A systematic review and meta-analysis
Liu, L., Moody, J., Deegan, R. and Gall, A. 2016. What are the evidence about electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in Spinal Cord Injury? – A systematic review and meta-analysis. in: Costa, A. and Villalba, E. (ed.) Horizons in Neuroscience Research. Volume 24. Nova Science Publishers.
A mini review of physiotherapies for patellofemoral pain syndrome
Hall, S. and Liu, L. 2015. A mini review of physiotherapies for patellofemoral pain syndrome. SM Journal of Orthopedics. 1 (4), p. 1018.
An evaluation of the impact of ‘Compassion in practice: nursing, midwifery and care staff - our vision and strategy’ on staff experience in NHS Trusts in England.
Allan, H., O'Driscoll, M., Liu, L., Corbett, K. and Department of Adult, Child and Midwifery, School of Health and Education, Middlesex University 2015. An evaluation of the impact of ‘Compassion in practice: nursing, midwifery and care staff - our vision and strategy’ on staff experience in NHS Trusts in England. School of Health and Education, Middlesex University.
The rate of publication of abstracts in solid organ transplantation presented at scientific meetings
Zucker, K., Pengel, L., Liu, L. and Morris, P. 2012. The rate of publication of abstracts in solid organ transplantation presented at scientific meetings. Transplantation. 94 (10s), p. 246.
Skin blood perfusion (BP) changes under ischial tuberosity (IT) during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation (GNMS) in spinal cord injury (SCI)
Liu, L., Gall, A. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2015. Skin blood perfusion (BP) changes under ischial tuberosity (IT) during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation (GNMS) in spinal cord injury (SCI). 18th Annual Meeting of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Ghent, Belgium 16 - 18 Sep 2015
Non-invasive technologies of tissue viability measurement for pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury
Liu, L., Deegan, R. and Gall, A. 2015. Non-invasive technologies of tissue viability measurement for pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury. HSOA Journal of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation & Disabilities. 1 (1).
Do electrical stimulation enhance pressure ulcer healing in people living with spinal cord injuries: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials
Liu, L., Moody, J. and Gall, A. 2015. Do electrical stimulation enhance pressure ulcer healing in people living with spinal cord injuries: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. 25th Conference of the European Wound Management Association (EWMA 2015). ExCeL London, UK 13 - 15 May 2015
Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation in spinal cord injury: a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation with surface functional electrical stimulation
Liu, L. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2015. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation in spinal cord injury: a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation with surface functional electrical stimulation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 96 (4), pp. 620-626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2014.10.008
Electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer treatment in people with spinal cord injuries: a meta analysis and systematic review
Liu, L., Moody, J. and Gall, A. 2014. Electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer treatment in people with spinal cord injuries: a meta analysis and systematic review. The 17th European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Annual Meeting 2014 (EPUAP 2014). Stockholm, Sweden 27 - 29 Aug 2014
A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries
Liu, L., Moody, J., Traynor, M., Dyson, S. and Gall, A. 2014. A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 37 (6), pp. 703-718. https://doi.org/10.1179/2045772314Y.0000000226
Topographical optimisation of functional magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots for achieving increased intra-abdominal pressure-therapeutic applications in spinal cord injury
Chelvarajah, R., Liu, L. and Craggs, M. 2004. Topographical optimisation of functional magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots for achieving increased intra-abdominal pressure-therapeutic applications in spinal cord injury. European Association of Neurosurgeons Winter Meeting. Budapest, Hungary Feb 2004
Functional magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots for assessment of spinal column deformity
Chelvarajah, R., Liu, L., Chung, E., Bycroft, J., Casy, A. and Craggs, M. 2004. Functional magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots for assessment of spinal column deformity. International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Annual Scientific Meeting. Athens, Greece Sep 2004
Neuromuscular stimulation for pressure and cutaneous blood perfusion changes under the ischial tuberosities
Liu, L., Knight, S., Ferguson-Pell, M. and Craggs, M. 2005. Neuromuscular stimulation for pressure and cutaneous blood perfusion changes under the ischial tuberosities. British Neurosurgical Research Group Meeting. London, UK 03 - 04 Mar 2005
Ischial pressure and skin blood volume changes during sacral nerve root stimulation in SCI
Liu, L., Craggs, M., Knight, S. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2006. Ischial pressure and skin blood volume changes during sacral nerve root stimulation in SCI. Meeting for Clinician Scientists in Training. London, UK 23 Feb 2006
Variation in diagnostic criteria for DDH among orthopaedic surgeons
Roposch, A. and Liu, L. 2010. Variation in diagnostic criteria for DDH among orthopaedic surgeons. 29th Annual EPOS Meeting. Zagreb, Croatia 07 - 10 Apr 2010
Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation
Liu, L., Craggs, M., Knight, S. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2004. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation. in: Wood, D. and Taylor, P. (ed.) Proceedings of 9th Annual Conference of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society Bournemouth University.
Pressure and cutaneous blood perfusion changes under the Ischial tuberosities during sacral nerve root stimulation
Liu, L., Craggs, M., Knight, S. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2005. Pressure and cutaneous blood perfusion changes under the Ischial tuberosities during sacral nerve root stimulation. International Conference on Posture and Wheeled Mobility. Exeter, Exeter University, South West England, U.K
Sacral nerve roots stimulation for Ischial pressure and blood perfusion changes in SCI
Liu, L., Knight, S., Nicholson, G., Chelvarajah, R., Middleton, F., Gall, A., Ferguson-Pell, M. and Craggs, M. 2005. Sacral nerve roots stimulation for Ischial pressure and blood perfusion changes in SCI. 44th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society. Munich and Murnau, Germany 04 - 08 Oct 2005
Pressure changes under the Ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulations in SCI : a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation(SNRS) against surface FES’
Liu, L., Knight, S., Chelvarajah, R., Gall, A., Middleton, F. and Ferguson-Pell, M. 2006. Pressure changes under the Ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulations in SCI : a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation(SNRS) against surface FES’. 45th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spinal Cord Society. Boston 25 - 28 Jun 2006
Reporting quality of randomised controlled trials in solid organ transplantation
Liu, L., Pengel, L. and Morris, P. 2011. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trials in solid organ transplantation. European Society of Transplantation Congress. Glasgow, Scotland 05 - 07 Sep 2011
Do reporting of randomised controlled trials in solid organ transplantation adherence to CONSORT statement? A 3 year overview
Liu, L., Pengel, L. and Morris, P. 2012. Do reporting of randomised controlled trials in solid organ transplantation adherence to CONSORT statement? A 3 year overview. 15th British Transplant Society Congress. Glasgow, Scotland 22 - 25 Feb 2012
Capillary density and endothelial function in patients with treated essential hypertension and in patients with typical chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms
Antonios, T., Liu, L., Pizzi, C., Cosin-Sales, J., Fredericks, S. and Kaski, J. 2004. Capillary density and endothelial function in patients with treated essential hypertension and in patients with typical chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms. Journal of Hypertension. 22, p. S168.
Orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging of capillary microcirculation in AfroCarribean and caucasian subjects with essential hypertension
Liu, L., Simmon, J., Markandu, N., MacGregor, G. and Antonios, T. 2004. Orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging of capillary microcirculation in AfroCarribean and caucasian subjects with essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, Supplement. 22 (S132).
Skin capillary density in hypertensive and normotensive individuals and its correlation with plasma rennin activity and ambulatory blood pressure
Liu, L., Simmon, J., Markandu, N., MacGregor, G. and Antonios, T. 2004. Skin capillary density in hypertensive and normotensive individuals and its correlation with plasma rennin activity and ambulatory blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension. 22, p. S132.
Diffuse endothelial dysfunction is common to ANCA associated systemic vasculitis and polyarteritis nodosa.
Filer, A., Gardner-Medwin, J., Thambyrajah, J., Raza, K., Carruthers, D., Stevens, R., Liu, L., Lowe, S., Townend, J. and Bacon, P. 2003. Diffuse endothelial dysfunction is common to ANCA associated systemic vasculitis and polyarteritis nodosa. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 62 (2), pp. 162-167. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.62.2.162
Variation in diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip among orthopaedic surgeons
Roposch, A. and Liu, L. 2010. Variation in diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip among orthopaedic surgeons. Journal of Children's Orthopaedics. 4 (1), p. S23.
Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation
Liu, L., Nicholson, G., Knight, S., Chelvarajah, R., Gall, A., Middleton, F., Ferguson-Pell, M. and Craggs, M. 2006. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 43 (2), pp. 209-218. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2005.04.0078
Interface pressure and cutaneous hemoglobin and oxygenation changes under ischial tuberosities during sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury
Liu, L., Nicholson, G., Knight, S., Chelvarajah, R., Gall, A., Middleton, F., Ferguson-Pell, M. and Craggs, M. 2006. Interface pressure and cutaneous hemoglobin and oxygenation changes under ischial tuberosities during sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 43 (4), pp. 553-564. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2005.08.0135
A systematic review of interventions for anxiety in people with HIV
Clucas, C., Sibley, E., Harding, R. and Liu, L. 2011. A systematic review of interventions for anxiety in people with HIV. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 16 (5), pp. 528-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2011.579989
What is the evidence for effectiveness of interventions to enhance coping among people living with HIV disease? a systematic review
Harding, R., Liu, L., Catalan, J. and Sherrd, L. 2011. What is the evidence for effectiveness of interventions to enhance coping among people living with HIV disease? a systematic review. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 16 (5), pp. 564-587. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2011.580352
Variations in the use of diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip
Roposch, A., Liu, L. and Protopapa, E. 2013. Variations in the use of diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 471 (6), pp. 1946-1954. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-013-2846-5
Standardized diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip in early infancy
Roposch, A., Liu, L., Hefti, F., Clarke, N. and Wedge, J. 2011. Standardized diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip in early infancy. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 469 (12), pp. 3451-3461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-011-2066-9
Compliance to the CONSORT statement of randomized controlled trials in solid organ transplantation: a 3-year overview
Liu, L., Morris, P. and Pengel, L. 2013. Compliance to the CONSORT statement of randomized controlled trials in solid organ transplantation: a 3-year overview. Transplant International. 26 (3), pp. 300-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/tri.12034
Do wound complications or lymphoceles occur more often in solid organ transplant recipients on mTOR inhibitors? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Pengel, L., Liu, L. and Morris, P. 2011. Do wound complications or lymphoceles occur more often in solid organ transplant recipients on mTOR inhibitors? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Transplant International. 24 (12), pp. 1216-1230. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2011.01357.x
Functional outcomes in children with osteonecrosis secondary to treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip
Roposch, A., Liu, L., Offiah, A. and Wedge, J. 2011. Functional outcomes in children with osteonecrosis secondary to treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American). 93 (24). https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.J.01623