Implementing democratic governance and ownership: the interplay of structure and culture in public service social enterprises

Article


Sepulveda Ramirez, L., Lyon, F. and Vickers, I. 2020. Implementing democratic governance and ownership: the interplay of structure and culture in public service social enterprises. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. 31 (3), pp. 627-641. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-020-00201-0
TypeArticle
TitleImplementing democratic governance and ownership: the interplay of structure and culture in public service social enterprises
AuthorsSepulveda Ramirez, L., Lyon, F. and Vickers, I.
Abstract

We examine the implementation of governance arrangements to extend ownership and control to employees and community stakeholders in social enterprises. Evidence from a sample of newly created public service social enterprises in England shows how the realisation of democratic ideals involves a gradual and often challenging process. Different outcomes are explained in terms of an interplay between the legal forms and representational mechanisms adopted and the enabling role of organisational culture. The paper contributes an analytic framework that captures the range of possible outcomes in terms of stakeholder versus stewardship forms of representation, and the cultural-psychological dimension of ownership. Organisations may find themselves at different stages in the journey towards the realisation of democratic ownership and governance. Conclusions are drawn for the field of social enterprise and non-profit research.

KeywordsSocial enterprise; Governance; Democratic ownership; Multi-stakeholder; Public service mutuals
Research GroupCentre for Enterprise, Environment and Development Research (CEEDR)
LanguageEnglish
PublisherSpringer
JournalVoluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN0957-8765
Electronic1573-7888
Publication dates
Online19 Feb 2020
Print01 Jun 2020
Publication process dates
Deposited31 Jan 2020
Accepted29 Jan 2020
Output statusPublished
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open
Copyright Statement

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11266-020-00201-0

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-020-00201-0
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85079826807
Web of Science identifierWOS:000516265300001
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Vickers, I., Owen, R., Smallbone, D., James, P., Ekanem, I., Bertotti, M. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2003. Cultural influences on health and safety attitudes and behaviour in small firms. London Health & Safety Executive Research Report, HSE Books.
Public service sectors in rural England.
North, D., Lyon, F., Ramsden, M., Owen, R. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2004. Public service sectors in rural England. Cheltenham Commission for Rural Communities.
Improving market institutions and urban food supplies for the urban poor: a comparative study of Nigeria and Zambia.
Porter, G., Lyon, F., Potts, D. and Bowyer-Bower, T. 2004. Improving market institutions and urban food supplies for the urban poor: a comparative study of Nigeria and Zambia. Wallingford Department for International Development..
Trade and market in conflict development and conflict resolution in Nigeria: scoping study report to the UK department for International Development.
Porter, G., Lyon, F., Adamu, F., Obafemi, L. and Blench, R. 2005. Trade and market in conflict development and conflict resolution in Nigeria: scoping study report to the UK department for International Development. University of Minnesota AgEcon Search.
Evaluation of the deprived urban post office fund.
North, D., Vickers, I., Owen, R., Ekanem, I. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2005. Evaluation of the deprived urban post office fund. London Office of the Deputy Prime Minister..
Mapping the social economy in the rural East Midlands.
Lyon, F., Smallbone, D., Evans, M., Ekanem, I., Smith, K. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2002. Mapping the social economy in the rural East Midlands. Countryside Agency.
Types and impacts of BME businesses
Lyon, F., Owen, R., McPherson, M., Ekanem, I., Ellis, C., Bertotti, M., Sepulveda Ramirez, L., Oyelere, M. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2007. Types and impacts of BME businesses. South East England Development Agency.
Local alchemy in the East Midlands
Vickers, I. 2007. Local alchemy in the East Midlands. in: North, D., Syrett, S. and Etherington, D. (ed.) Political devolution, regional governance and tackling deprivation York, UK Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Trust, co-operation and networking in an immigrant business community: the case of chinese-owned businesses in the UK.
Smallbone, D., Lyon, F. and Xiao, L. 2005. Trust, co-operation and networking in an immigrant business community: the case of chinese-owned businesses in the UK. in: Hohmann, H. and Welter, F. (ed.) Trust and entrepreneurship: a West–East perspective. Cheltenham Edward Elgar.
Policy support for R and D in SMEs: the UK government’s SMART award scheme.
Smallbone, D., North, D., Vickers, I. and McCarthy, I. 2000. Policy support for R and D in SMEs: the UK government’s SMART award scheme. in: During, W., Oakey, R. and Kipling, M. (ed.) New technology-based firms at the turn of the century. Oxford Pergamon. pp. 143-159
SMEs and the innovative capability of regions: London’s Lee Valley region in a European context
North, D., Smallbone, D. and Vickers, I. 2003. SMEs and the innovative capability of regions: London’s Lee Valley region in a European context. in: Kirby, D. and Watson, A. (ed.) Small firms and economic development in developed and transition economies: a reader Aldershot Ashgate.
The social relations of economic life and networks of civic engagement: ‘Social capital’ and targeted development in West Africa.
Lyon, F. and Porter, G. 2005. The social relations of economic life and networks of civic engagement: ‘Social capital’ and targeted development in West Africa. in: Cline-Cole, R. and Robson, E. (ed.) West African worlds: paths through socio-economic change, livelihoods and development. Harlow Pearson.
Institutional perspectives on understanding street vendor behaviour and networks: cases from Ghana
Lyon, F. 2007. Institutional perspectives on understanding street vendor behaviour and networks: cases from Ghana. in: Cross, J. and Morales, A. (ed.) Street entrepreneurs: people, place and politics in local and global perspective London Routledge.
Measuring the contributions of small firms to reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion in the UK
Lyon, F. and Bertotti, M. 2007. Measuring the contributions of small firms to reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion in the UK. in: Stoner, J. and Wankel, C. (ed.) Innovative approaches to reducing global poverty. Charlotte, USA Information Age Publishing.
Interventions to tackle the economic needs of deprived areas: analysis of six policy case studies.
North, D., Syrett, S., Etherington, D., Vickers, I. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2007. Interventions to tackle the economic needs of deprived areas: analysis of six policy case studies. York Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Business-led regeneration of deprived areas: a review of the evidence base. [Research report 5]
North, D., Smallbone, D., Lyon, F., Potts, G. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2003. Business-led regeneration of deprived areas: a review of the evidence base. [Research report 5]. London Office of the Deputy Prime Minister..
Complementarity and co-ordination of self-employment support in rural areas.
Lyon, F. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2002. Complementarity and co-ordination of self-employment support in rural areas. Countryside Agency.
Formalising new arrival enterprises: challenges of new ethnic entrepreneurship for business support policy.
Sepulveda Ramirez, L., Lyon, F., Botero, A., Syrett, S. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2007. Formalising new arrival enterprises: challenges of new ethnic entrepreneurship for business support policy. Prevista Ltd.
Provide advice on methods to improve promotion and facilitation of Rural Enterprise Scheme - RE0114
Lyon, F., CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) and Plunkett Foundation 2003. Provide advice on methods to improve promotion and facilitation of Rural Enterprise Scheme - RE0114. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
The contribution of social enterprises to rural economies.
Lyon, F. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2003. The contribution of social enterprises to rural economies. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
Evaluation of the support for enterprising communities pilot project.
Lyon, F., Evans, M., Ramsden, M., Burch, J. and CEEDR (Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research) 2005. Evaluation of the support for enterprising communities pilot project. Department of Education and Skills..
A note on trust, networks, social capital and entrepreneurial behaviour.
Smallbone, D. and Lyon, F. 2002. A note on trust, networks, social capital and entrepreneurial behaviour. in: Hohmann, H. and Welter, F. (ed.) Entrepreneurial strategies and trust: structure and evolution of entrepreneurial behavioural patterns in East and West European environments. Bremen Forschungsstelle Osteurpa.
Entrepreneurship
Lyon, F. 2004. Entrepreneurship. in: Forsyth, T. (ed.) Encyclopedia of international development. London Routledge.
Regional technology initiatives: some insights from the English regions
Vickers, I. and North, D. 2000. Regional technology initiatives: some insights from the English regions. European Planning Studies. 8 (3), pp. 301-318. https://doi.org/10.1080/713666413
Markets, ethnicity and environment in a vulnerable landscape: the case of small-scale vegetable production on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, 1991-2001.
Porter, G., Harris, F., Lyon, F., Adeptu, A. and Dung, J. 2003. Markets, ethnicity and environment in a vulnerable landscape: the case of small-scale vegetable production on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, 1991-2001. Geographical Journal. 169 (4), pp. 370-381.
Regulating health and safety in small firms.
Smallbone, D., Vickers, I., James, P. and Owen, R. 2005. Regulating health and safety in small firms. in: Gray, C. and Bannock, G. (ed.) Government regulation and the small firm Milton Keynes, UK Open University Business School.
The role and characteristics of SMEs.
Smallbone, D., North, D. and Vickers, I. 2003. The role and characteristics of SMEs. in: Asheim, B. (ed.) Regional innovation policy for small-medium enterprises. Cheltenham Edward Elgar.
The relations of co-operation in group enterprises and associations in Ghana: exploration of issues of trust and power
Lyon, F. 2003. The relations of co-operation in group enterprises and associations in Ghana: exploration of issues of trust and power. in: Sforzi, F. (ed.) The institutions of local development Ashgate.
Market institutions and urban food supply in West and Southern Africa a review
Porter, G., Lyon, F. and Potts, D. 2007. Market institutions and urban food supply in West and Southern Africa a review. Progress in Development Studies. 7 (2), pp. 115-134. https://doi.org/10.1177/146499340600700203
Trust, networks and norms: the creation of social capital in agricultural economies in Ghana
Lyon, F. 2000. Trust, networks and norms: the creation of social capital in agricultural economies in Ghana. World Development. 28 (4), pp. 663-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(99)00146-1
Developing fledgling social enterprises? A study of the support required and the means of delivering it.
Lyon, F. and Ramsden, M. 2006. Developing fledgling social enterprises? A study of the support required and the means of delivering it. Social Enterprise Journal. 2 (1), pp. 27-41.
The Nigerian market: fuelling conflict or contributing to peace.
Lyon, F., Porter, G., Adamu, F. and Obafemi, L. 2006. The Nigerian market: fuelling conflict or contributing to peace. in: Banfield, J., Gunduz, C. and Killick, N. (ed.) Local business, local peace: the peace building potential of the domestic private sector. London International Alert. pp. 432-437
Social enterprise and the environment: a review of the literature
Vickers, I. 2010. Social enterprise and the environment: a review of the literature. Third Sector Research Centre, University of Birmingham.
Better regulation and enterprise: the case of environmental health risk regulation in Britain
Vickers, I. 2008. Better regulation and enterprise: the case of environmental health risk regulation in Britain. Policy Studies. 29 (2), pp. 215-232. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442870802033514
External evaluation of Innovation Exchange.
Lyon, F. and CEEDR 2010. External evaluation of Innovation Exchange. London Middlesex University.
Outsider missing link or panacea? Some Reflections about the place of social enterprise (with)in and in relation to the Third Sector.
Sepulveda Ramirez, L. 2009. Outsider missing link or panacea? Some Reflections about the place of social enterprise (with)in and in relation to the Third Sector. Birmingham Third Sector Research Centre, University of Birmingham.
Alternative approaches to capacity building: practices in the public and private sector.
Lyon, F. 2009. Alternative approaches to capacity building: practices in the public and private sector. CEEDR, Middlesex University.
Decentralizing industrial policies: threat or opportunity in developing countries?
Sepulveda Ramirez, L. and Amin, A. 2006. Decentralizing industrial policies: threat or opportunity in developing countries? in: Bianchi, P. and Labory, S. (ed.) International Handbook on Industrial Policy Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 321-342
Market institutions, trust and norms: exploring moral economies in Nigerian food systems
Lyon, F. and Porter, G. 2009. Market institutions, trust and norms: exploring moral economies in Nigerian food systems. Cambridge Journal of Economics. 33 (5), pp. 903-920. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bem008
Innovation and the use of technology in manufacturing plants and SMEs: an interregional study
Vickers, I., North, D., Smallbone, D. and Roper, S. 2003. Innovation and the use of technology in manufacturing plants and SMEs: an interregional study. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space. 21 (1), pp. 37-52. https://doi.org/10.1068/c0218
Influences on small firm compliance-related behaviour: the case of workplace health and safety.
Owen, R., James, P., Smallbone, D. and Vickers, I. 2006. Influences on small firm compliance-related behaviour: the case of workplace health and safety. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space. 24 (6), pp. 827-846. https://doi.org/10.1068/c0564
Understanding small firm responses to regulation: the case of workplace health and safety
Vickers, I., Smallbone, D., James, P. and Owen, R. 2005. Understanding small firm responses to regulation: the case of workplace health and safety. Policy Studies. 26 (2), pp. 149-169. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442870500127626
Public sector support for innovating SMEs
North, D., Smallbone, D. and Vickers, I. 2001. Public sector support for innovating SMEs. Small Business Economics. 16 (4), pp. 303-317. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011164801073
Managing co-operation: trust and power in Ghanaian associations
Lyon, F. 2006. Managing co-operation: trust and power in Ghanaian associations. Organization Studies. 27 (1), pp. 31-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840605056392
The use of external sources of health and safety information and advice: the case of small firms
Vickers, I., Smallbone, D. and Owen, R. 2004. The use of external sources of health and safety information and advice: the case of small firms. Policy and Practice in Health and Safety. 2 (1), pp. 91-104.
Spatializing industrial policies: a view from the south
Sepulveda Ramirez, L. 2008. Spatializing industrial policies: a view from the south. Regional Studies. 42 (10), pp. 1385-1397. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400701543223
Spatialising industrial policies: a view from the south
Sepulveda Ramirez, L. 2008. Spatialising industrial policies: a view from the south. Regional Studies. 42 (10), pp. 1385-1397. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400701543223
Enterprising refugees: contributions and challenges in deprived areas
Lyon, F., Sepulveda Ramirez, L. and Syrett, S. 2007. Enterprising refugees: contributions and challenges in deprived areas. Local Economy. 22 (4), pp. 363-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/02690940701736769
Out of the shadows? Formalisation approaches to informal economic activity
Sepulveda Ramirez, L. and Syrett, S. 2007. Out of the shadows? Formalisation approaches to informal economic activity. Policy and Politics. 35 (1), pp. 87-104. https://doi.org/10.1332/030557307779657739
Groups as a means or an end? Social capital and the promotion of cooperation in Ghana
Porter, G. and Lyon, F. 2006. Groups as a means or an end? Social capital and the promotion of cooperation in Ghana. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 24 (2), pp. 249-262. https://doi.org/10.1068/d0303
Learning and research for sustainable agro-ecosystems by both farmers and scientists.
Lyon, F., Clarke, S., Harris, F., Wolf, M. and Gibbon, D. 2005. Learning and research for sustainable agro-ecosystems by both farmers and scientists. London Middlesex University.
Trader associations and urban food systems in Ghana: institutionalist approaches to understanding urban collective action
Lyon, F. 2003. Trader associations and urban food systems in Ghana: institutionalist approaches to understanding urban collective action. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 27 (1), pp. 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00428
Cleaner production: organisational learning or business as usual? An example from the domestic appliance industry
Vickers, I. 2000. Cleaner production: organisational learning or business as usual? An example from the domestic appliance industry. Business Strategy and the Environment. 9 (4), pp. 255-268. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-0836(200007/08)9:4<255::AID-BSE252>3.0.CO;2-A